AuthorFranklin Lowe

Yamabushitake Mushroom’s Top Benefits

Yamabushitake represents a medicinal mushroom, with a significant benefits aimed towards the neurological function of an individual. The name was derived from the latern term Hericium erinaceus and it also has a couple of recognizable names such as Monkey Head Mushroom, and Lion’s Mane. This amazing mushroom has many neurological benefits. It is rich in minerals like Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Potassium, as well as various polypeptides, polysaccharides and amino acids. Scientists from Japan have discovered that this mushroom stimulates numerous nerve cell growth factors, so there is a debate that this mechanism of action could be applied for the Alzheimer’s disease treatment and for damage of peripheral nerve tissue.

This mushroom inhabits the surface of dead or old broadleaf trees and it is widely consumed in China and Japan. It has many nutrients and while it is widely consumed, there is no harmful side effects reported. The traditional Chinese medicine has enlisted this mushroom as the key medicine. It improves body energy, physical condition, and improves digestion. Based on the latest studies, Yamabushitake has the potential to inhibit cancer cell growth. The benefits of this natural nootropic are aimed at liver, kidneys, hear, stomach and spleen. The supplements of this nootropic are in demand lately for its anti-aging and nootropic effects.

Effects of Yamabushitake


When using this mushroom as nootropic, probably the most important mechanism of actions which supports this benefit is the effect on the nerve growth factor or NFG. NFG is a chemical that is present in the brain that affects the developments and growth of neurons. The most important role of this substance is the survival and differentiation of nerve cells, which is present both in peripheral and central part of nervous system. Studies have stated that lower concentrations of NFG lead to brain cell denial, which could promote dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Yamabushitake works as a stimulator of NFG, which is a unique factor that is present among the medicinal mushrooms.

The benefit of Yamabushitake use could be also explained by the fast absorption, especially the fast crossing of blood-brain barrier. This is quite uncommon among medicinal mushrooms. Because of the small molecules present in Yamabushitake, it can easily cross the blood-brain membrane and affect the brain more efficiently. These chemical substances then interact with brain receptors and help restore the nerve sheaths that are important for the improvement of conductivity signals in nerves. Positive impact of this mushroom enhances the brain electrical conductivity and therefore, increase the efficiency of signal transmission.

Yamabushitake benefits

Improve immunomodulation is one of the benefits this mushroom can give.. Immunomodulation is usually propagated by either suppressed or stimulated inflammation, which classes this nootropic as an adaptogen. This supplement also boosts the immune system and protects the organs from oxidative damage. By boosting the concentrations of both interferons and white blood cells, Yamabushitake supports almost any healing process in the body and enhances the immune system. It is also beneficial for those who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases, because this mushroom enhances the mucus stomach barrier, accelerates the ulcer healing and reduces present inflammation.

As far as it comes to blood system, Yamabushitake assists in blood sugar and cholesterol regulation by lowering these concentrations to a normal level. There are also evidences that this mushroom affects the response to allergies by lowering the allergy sensitivity. It also improves numerous conditions such as multiple sclerosis, neuronal degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, autism and muscular dystrophy. As a nootropic supplement, Yamabushitake promotes brain plasticity and memory retention, including cognitive decline which is a direct benefit of anti-aging and longevity effect. The multiple mechanisms of action could even reverse the neurological damage which occurs due to environmental toxins, substance abuse, stroke or aging.

Recommended dosage for Yamabushitake

Yamabushitake is present for centuries and is used for traditional human treatment, yet there is still no recommended dosage for this nootropic supplement. Relatively few studies on humans are probably the reason for scarce data regarding the dosage, yet certain literature suggests the dosage up to 1 gram, which could be taken three times a day. If you decide to try with this nootropic treatment, it is better to start with lower doses and then advance with higher ones. The starter dosage should be around 50 to 100 mg. After you become familiar with the benefits, effects and side effects, then you could increase the dosage, staying in the predicted limits.

Side effects of Yamabushitake

Since this supplement is still new in modern medicine, there are no reported side effects which could be considered. Yet, this doesn’t mean that side effects do no exist, so it is important to consult a medical professional before you decide to start using this mushroom. Along with the data for side effects, there are also no evidence for Yamabushitake toxicity, interactions and even reactions with other medications.

Vinpocetine Overview – Effectiveness & Benefits

In a previous article about vincamine, we touched the topic of natural nootropics which are derived from plants and are mostly preferred by those who are sceptical when it comes to synthesized products. We have mentioned that a vincamine derivative, called vinpocetine, is more popular than its predecessor, when it comes to effectiveness and benefits. In this article, the reader will get to know whether this herbal supplement is the right choice for him/her, by introducing vinpocetine’s benefits and side effects, as well as the mechanism of its action.

Like vincamine, vinpocetine represents an indole alkaloid which is extracted from Vinca minor, or Periwinkle plant. Even though both of these compounds are found naturally in this plant, vincamine is the one which was used the most as a brain enhancing compound in the past. Lately, studies about vinpocetine have shown that this substance has a more potent activity than vincamine, as well as rare manifestation of side effects, which are more common in vincamine. Because alkaloids are found in lower concentrations in plants, laboratories nowadays synthesize vinpocetine from vincamine and other similar alkaloids, ensuring the purification of this natural derivative and higher quantities available to consumers.


Along with the mentioned effects in various therapies, vinpocetine also deals with neurological impairments by providing increased brain blood flow. Like vincamine, it boosts cognitive functions and has a general effect on brain health when used for a longer time period. It has a neuroprotective activity and treats memory loss, mental decline related to age and reduces mortality in patients who have suffered from ischemic stroke.

How Does Vinpocetine Work?

Vinpocetine is considered to be an anti-inflammatory substance, causing brain blood vessels to relax and dilatate so that additional blood flow may come to the brain. One of the proposed mechanisms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease is the neuroinflammation which causes the neurons to die off. The anti-inflammatory effect of vinpocetine prevents such neuroinflammation and helps neurons to renovate. Vinpocetine prevents the excessive stimulation of neurons, a dangerous effect which could lead to excitotoxicity and premature death of neurons.

Vinpocetine Benefits

Numerous studies have demonstrated that vinpocetine has a vasodilatatory effect on peripheral blood vessels of brain. This vasodilatator increases brain circulation, without a significant change of total blood pressure in other parts of the body. By increasing blood flow to the brain, neurons receive additional oxygen, as well as glucose and other essential nutrients, required for generating energy through brain metabolism. Enhanced brain metabolism affects cognitive processing, including motoric skills, memory and general response. Another great effect of an increased blood flow is the elimination of toxic products from the brain, which supports the preservation of brain cells and their maintenance and growth.

vinpocetine benefits

Vinpocetine, as a natural product, is becoming more and more popular among the senior population, as well as students, who want to enhance their cognitive and studying capabilities. Students usually say that this natural nootropic gets rid of brain fog, helps them with studying specific material. It improves mental stamina, bringing higher mood and motivation necessary for endurance. When it comes to elderly people, vinpocetine lessens the risk related to Alzheimer’s disease including similar neurological forms of the disease. It helps with reduction of brain aging and improves the memory of seniors. Additional non-nootropic benefits are effect on menopausal symptoms, prevention of motion sickness, seizure disorders, and CFS or chronic fatigue syndrome.

Vinpocetine Side Effects

This supplement has few side effects which should be taken in consideration. Most individuals react quite well, without any serious side effects. Mild side effects include headache, nausea, nervousness, gastrointestinal symptoms, sleep problems and dizziness. These side effects are often resolved within couple of days, but if any of the side effects prolong, a consultation with a medical professional is necessary so that the right treatment could be processed.  As with any supplement, stop use until it is possible to consult with the appropriate health professional.

When taking vinpocetine, it is necessary to take drug interactions into consideration because specific combinations of medicine could prove to be dangerous to ones health. Vinpocetine does have some vasodilation properties that could be a problem for people with related conditions.  Combination with analgetics, or pain relievers, should also be avoided, as well as combination with agents that lead to blood thinning. It is not recommended for use by a person who has heart problems, hemophilia or low blood pressure. Pregnant women, or those who are breastfeeding, should avoid the use of vinpocetine, as well as children under the age of 18. Patients have had a recent surgery should avoid the vinpocetine use because it could increase the risk of bleeding and antagonize the effects of blood thickening drugs.


Vinpocetine is considered to be among the most used natural nootropics in the world. Its benefits and possibility of side effects are significant, which makes this supplement acceptable for wider masses. It enhances cognitive effects and increases activities linked to learning, memory, clarity of thought, speed of recall and alertness. For those who would like to start a nootropic treatment, vinpocetine is a good call. Certain people who suffer from blood clotting should avoid the use of this substance, as well as children, pregnant women and those who breasfeed. It should be taken orally, with 5-10 mg three times a day, for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Please consult a medical professional if you decide to use this nootropic, because it is important to take in consideration all the current conditions which could affect your health.

Improve the functioning of your brain with Huperzine A

huperzine aHuperzine A is an alkaloid compound, with basic nitrogen atoms, naturally found in the plant species, fermoss (chemical name: Huperzia). Generally, the Chinese club moss is used to extract and purify huperzine A with the help of laboratory manipulation. This herbal supplement has many nootropic benefits for humans and deals directly with memory and brain’s functioning.

A number of neurological problems can be treated with huperzine A, especially Alzheimer’s disease. It is also used to target problems of memory losses and deficiencies in learning. Its effects can further aid to enhance concentration, gain mental clarity and increase the potential to process information.

Scientifically, huperzine A is known to increase the amount of acetylcholine in brain and is considered an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter between neurons that transmits signals to encode memories. The way huperzine A affects acetylcholine is the same as medications for Alzheimer’s and galantamine, another alkaloid, affect acetylcholine. However, huperzine A is more readily available and cheap comparatively.

Acetlycholinesterase is an enzyme which breaks down acetylcholine to recycle it in a continuous neuron process. Huperzine A and galantamine inhibit the action of acetlycholinesterase and thus, lead to increased levels of acetylcholine in brain. Acetylcholine is associated with helping the brain in adapting, learning and storing new information. With the passage of time, levels of acetylcholine decrease inside the brain. Hence, older people can greatly benefit from this nootropic supplement to reverse the decline.

Huperzine A’s effectiveness was tested with a number of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Researchers found out that after regular usage of the supplement for 30 to 60 days, most patients had improved memory and thinking abilities. Another research study hinted towards the benefits huperzine A can provide to patients suffering from senile dementia. Although, more research and experimentation are required, to authenticate the positive results. Adolescents, especially students, can use the supplement for boosting formation and retention of memory, especially under stressful conditions.

There are no consistent side effects that have been associated with the use of huperzine A, particularly when using the supplement for short term. However, like other supplements, some standard side effects have been reported which include nausea, barfing, loose motions, faded vision, appetite loss, restlessness and twitching. But nothing severe has surfaced till now.

But there are certain conditions, during which the use of Huperzine A is to be avoided. People with heart diseases, like bradycardia, should avoid its usage. In some cases, Huperzine A has resulted in a slower heartbeat. To avoid any major issues, it is advisable to consult a doctor before using huperzine A if you have a heart condition. Patients suffering from epilepsy should also avoid using it. As the supplement imbalances the chemicals in the brain, there is a possibility that Huperzine A worsens epileptic seizures. Although, there isn’t much research out there that explores how huperzine A affects during and after pregnancy, pregnant and feeding women should avoid the supplement.

Based on scientific research and studies, doses have been recommended for individuals. For people with Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular Dementia, it is advised that they orally consume 50 to 200 mcg of the supplement twice in a day. Old people who have senile or pre-senile dementia (declining of thinking skills with age) should take 30 mcg twice per day. Adolescents looking to improve memory, 100 mcg two times in a day is recommended.

There also seems to exist, a relationship between prevention of muscle weakness due to myasthenia gravis, a muscular disorder, and Huperzine A. Such individuals can receive a shot of huperzine A daily if approved by a medical professional.

Synaptol – a homeopathic nootropic supplement

Homeopathic supplements have recently gained popularity for being extremely safe and adaptable to anyone who wishes to use it. This is fairly supported by the fact that these supplements are available without prescription, enlisting them as OTC (over-the-counter) preparations. An example of a homeopathic preparation is Synaptol, which is a nootropic supplement for the treatment of ADHD. It is presented as a natural homeopathic preparation for individuals who have difficulties in focusing, paying attention to performed tasks, listening to certain instructions, and controlling impulses. It is a good alternative to ADHD medicines such as Adderall, and it is completely derived from herbs. Synaptol stimulates the internal healing process and optimizes the brain performance, which makes this supplement quite popular in the nootropic world as well. Numerous reviews speak about the benefits of Synaptol, like being able to improve the ability to focus, memory capacity, energy increase, and much more.


The manufacturer of this supplement is a company called HelloLife and is formulated in a liquid state, which means that its effects are immediately enjoyed because its absorption process is fast. Although some individuals may not experience the benefits immediately, but only after a certain time of intake. There have been many concerns for children who suffer from ADHD and the right medications to prescribed for them. Some of these medications are later shown to be potentially dangerous to children. Synaptol on the other hand, works both for children and adults, bringing positive effects with maximum safety. FDA, has therefore, according to the numerous positive reviews, presented Synaptol as a target for their thorough experiments. This supplement is available, while further tests are currently done.

Effects of Synaptol

Synaptol represents a homeopathic formulation for the treatment of ADHD. It works as a stimulator of the natural healing power of the body. It consists of different ingredients such as Adrenalinum, Aconitum Ferox, Avena Sativa and Apis Mellica, which have been reported to improve concentration. Additional ingredients for this homeopathic supplement include Argentum Nitricum, Aesculus Hippocastanum, Cochlearia Armoracia, Baptisia Tinctoria, Scleranthus, Phosphorus, Scutellaria Lateriflora, and Viola Odorata. The secret ingredients are mostly herbal and all solely have homeopathic effects recognized by homeopathic medicine. The exact mechanism of Synaptol’s effects is still unclear, yet these natural extracts generally boost the attention and other cognitive functions.

Synaptol benefits

This herbal, homeopathic alternative to Adderall and Ritalin, is good for those who suffer from ADHD and would still want a natural supplement for their condition. Unlike Adderall and Ritalin, Synaptol is not a prescription drug and could be easily found as an OTC preparation. The studies and cases have shown that Synaptol has a beneficial effect on cognitive functions in both children and adults, without additional stimulation or arousal overdrive.

Even though the supplement is not technically considered as a nootropic, it still offers similar effects which could benefit those who wish to start the treatment. In short, Synaptol can also improve concentration, the memory recall speed, and overall focus, which are important for studying and work. People who have used Synaptol have reported that they have become less forgetful and make fewer mistakes at school or work.

Other users report additional benefits, such as a better sleep, making an individual wake up well rested and ready for a new day. This supplement also benefits the ability to relax easier and to fall asleep without any difficulties. Another benefit of Synaptol is that it affects the general mood positively. The overall positive increase in mood is reported without the mood swings and the feelings of depression and anxiety. Consumers have said that they feel more organized and confident, with being able to focus on work more properly, improving their efficiency over time.

Recommended dosage for Synaptol

The recommended dosage for this supplement depends on the actual weight and age of a person, and both adults and children could use it. For small children who weigh anywhere from 30 to 50 pounds (14kg to 23kg), they should take a 0.5ml two times per day. For children who weigh more than that range, a full 1ml should be taken, twice a day. The morning and evening doses should balance the intake of this homeopathic preparation.

The supplement can be taken solely or with water, depending on your choice. The effects may be felt a couple of hours after administration, and the full benefits can be experienced after 3 to 6 months of intake. Keep the bottle in a dry and cool location, avoiding the contact with electrical devices, appliances, and metal.

Synaptol side effects and interactions

A number of side effects have been reported, which has brought these concerns to the FDA and subjected it for further investigation. Yet, it is still unknown if these side effects have come from the Synaptol use or something else in addition. The reported side effects for this homeopathic preparation are nose bleeds, sleeping problems, loss of appetite, and headaches. These side effects are considered mild and have differed from person to person.

As far as it comes to interactions, according to the ingredients of this homeopathic supplement, people who use certain drugs should avoid its use, in combination, or avoid it completely. So it is important to consult a medical professional for your current therapy before you decide to start this nootropic treatment. The drugs which interact with Synaptol are Warfarin, topical Corticosteroids, Digoxin and antidiabetic drugs such as Glyburide, Glimepiride, Metformin, Insulin, Tolbutamid, Pioglitazone. If you are diabetic or experience any other metabolic syndrome, please contact your medical professional immediately for further advice regarding the intake and use of the Synapol preparation.

Lion’s Mane Mushroom – A Supplement for Nerve Growth Factor

Hericium erinaceus, nicknamed, the “lions mane” mushroom is a medicinal mushroom that may have great benefits for the brain. This highly edible mushroom can be grown commercially and is often available commercially in Asian marketplaces in both fresh and dried forms.

Lion’s mane has been used for many centuries by the Chinese due to its unique medical benefits. Mostly the mushroom has been used traditionally to treat digestive related issues. The mushroom has been used in Chinese medicine for problems such as: gastric ulcers, pancreas inflammation and digestive diseases.

As of late, modern science has brought us to understand more about lion’s mane mushroom and its effects on the brain. Research has shown lion’s mane mushroom to possibly improve cognitive function especially, in those who are cognitively impaired. This is believed to be caused be the substances ability to trigger an increase in the nerve growth factor (NGF)

What is Nervneuron structure in the braine Growth Factor?

Nerve growth factor is very important for the survival and growth of certain neurons. Neurons are responsible in the brain for transmitting signals that involve neurotransmitters and receptors. Damage to neurons and neuronal systems can result in permanent brain damage that can result in cognitive impairment and cognitive decline.


Nerve growth factor is released in the brain as a protein. It is related to another group of other brain factors known as neurotrophins. These factors are extremely important in keeping the integrity of important neuronal systems in place. They are also responsible in the growth of neurons and are especially important in the development and stability of a growing and developing brain.

Improving nerve growth factor may work specifically as a nootropic. These nootropic benefits may become especially apparent in those who are already mentally impaired or aged. Damaged memory may be able to be partially fixed and new neurons created to improve future memory functions. NGF may also help to reduce possible damages in the future directly related to brain damaged neurons.

Recent science has shown nerve growth factor to place an important part in neurodegenerative diseases like Dementia and Alzheimer’s. Increasing nerve growth factor and improving its function may greatly enhance the ability of the brain to reduce damages and even partially reverse them. Many cognitive diseases have been linked to malfunction of nerve growth factor.

Lion’s Mane Mushroom and Nerve Growth Factor

Nerve growth factor itself cannot cross the blood brain barrier. There are certain bioactive compounds like ones in the Lion’s Mane Mushroom that can easily cross the blood brain barrier and increase NGF once across.

The active parts of the mushroom fruit are known as Hericenones. These are believed to be to active parts promoting NGF in the actual mushroom itself. The root also known, as mycelium of lion’s mane is also highly potent for promoting NGF, in fact, it is thought to be up to 5x as potent as the fruit. The active component promoting NGF in the mycelium of Lion’s Mane is Erinacine. If one were to find the best lion’s mane extract they would find one from the mycelium of the fungi.

Lion’s Mane Concerns

There are several concerns with Lion’s Mane even though there is a significant amount of research surrounding NGF and the benefits of this mushroom. If it can indeed work to increase NGF this can have great benefits however this area still needs more research and therefore it is unsafe to make assumptions

Lion’s mane should never be considered a primary agent for brain damage and disease. The research is there but it is still an area of interest and study. Also, there may be other issues relating to nerve growth factors and their functions. Increasing them may not always be an answer to the problems.

The last concern with lion’s mane is its purity and quality as a supplement. There are many suppliers and it is indeed best to find one that is reputable and has quality products. The mushroom can also be obtained in its fresh and dried form from the market. These can be consumed in larger amounts to reap the mushrooms benefits. This may be inconvenient for some however the purity can be observed and scaled.


medium;”> – Lion’s Mane Nerve Growth Factor – Nerve Growth Factor Cholinergic Memory Improvement (Any Age)

Why your Body & Brain Needs more Tryptophan

Tryptophan is one of the 22 different naturally occurring basic units of proteins (amino acids) found in the human body. Chemically, it is represented as C11H12N2O2 and is categorized as an ‘essential amino acid’. Essential amino acids are the ones that are needed by the body but are not produced within the body and are to be obtained from food.

Fortunately enough, it is a part of many food items consumed almost daily including, nuts, eggs, some dairy products, soybeans, walnuts and oats. But in comparison with other amino acids, it is the least abundant amino acid in most countries’ diets, especially North America.

Consequently, many people have started using tryptophan as a nootropic supplement for increasing and sustaining levels of tryptophan inside their bodies. The amount of tryptophan in one’s body directly affects a person’s mood and leads to healthy sleep. Serotonin, a neurotransmitter, is derived from tryptophan. Serotonin helps in regulating mood and appetite.

A hormone, melatonin, is responsible for regular and healthy sleep patterns and also needs tryptophan as a precursor. Tryptophan further plays an important role as a precursor for many other chemical substances needed for essential bodily functions like, Niacin – a Vitamin B, and Auxin, a phytohormone.

Tryptophan, Serotonin & Melatonin

Tryptophan is now available in the market as a dietary supplement to regulate levels of tryptophan in blood. The supplement is used by most as an anti-depressant and a sleeping aid. This is directly linked with tryptophan’s role in synthesis of serotonin. A chemically modified form of tryptophan is also being researched into to treat epilepsy.

Resorting to supplements can be very beneficial for the body and prevent many deficiency issues. Tryptophan supplements help to modulate our social actions, control our appetites and reduce anxiety as well as depression in a person. According to researchers, anxiety disorders and depression, in many cases, are caused by insufficient levels of tryptophan in body.

Tryptophan supplements are being used widely as anti-depressants with minimal side effects. The effect of limiting appetite by serotonin can help overweight people fight obesity. Tryptophan supplements are also used to synthesize Niacin, which processes lipids and carbohydrates. Individuals with bad sleeping habits can greatly benefit from these supplements. Serotonin and melatonin, derived from tryptophan, relax the body and regulate sleeping habits.

Tryptophan supplements can also prevent and fight the onslaught of some medical diseases. A research study done in 2010 showed that tryptophan can cause the prevention of steatohepatitis, which is a very common liver disease even among people who consume little or no alcohol. Tryptophan supplements have shown to improve conditions and symptoms in people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. With decreasing levels of tryptophan, the symptoms of the syndrome get even more severe.

The dosage of the supplements depends on the specific purpose tryptophan is being consumed for and should be taken after consulting with a doctor. Commonly, people, especially those looking to fight depression, take between 6 to 12 grams daily, spread over a few administrations. Normally, tryptophan supplements don’t lead to side effects but still, over use is to be avoided.

Tryptophan supplements can really help people who want to improve on their anxieties, depression and sleep patterns.

A review of Pemoline: effects, side effects, dosage and results

Pemoline is a nootropic substance with a tradition of about a hundred years. It was first synthesized in 1913 and used as a prescription medicine under numerous market names. Its use was focused on the treatment of children with ADHD and its mechanism aimed towards the stimulation of the central nervous system and increasing attention in combination with a decrease in restlessness. Even though it has been discovered a hundred years ago, its past usage was not based on the definite mechanism of action (which was still unknown and unexplained), a couple of decades after its discovery.

Nowadays, experts believe that Pemoline is not safe for children, so it was abandoned as treatment for ADHD as well as narcolepsy. Current classification puts this substance in the psychotropic group and is administered intravenously in the U.S.A.

The effects of Pemoline

Pemoline’s mechanism of action is still not fully explained, even though it has been used for a hundred years already in medicine. But, the effects of Pemoline are certain. It works as a powerful brain stimulant. When compared to other nervous stimulants, Pemoline has a different pharmacological activity, which vastly differs from other compounds. Having small molecules enables Pemoline to easily cross the blood brain barrier and act inside the central nervous system quickly and efficiently. It also acts as a surrogate for the neurotransmitter dopamine, without affecting the intracellular concentrations of dopamine at all. This also explains the reason why it has minimal effects on significant dopamine stimulation. Therefore, it doesn’t bear typical side effects such as loss of appetite, hypertension, dry mouth, cardiac stress, dilated pupils, and smooth muscle constriction.

An important effect of Pemoline, which a vast majority of scientists support, is its nootropic effect. Scientists believe that Pemoline works as a nootropic agent or as a supplement, acting as a catalyst conductor of brain synapses placed in the memory section. This way, Pemoline affects the production and formation of RNA, which raises memory efficiency needed for positive cognitive function.

Pemoline benefits

Pemoline benefitsThe previous benefits of this substance could be found in the treatment of ADHD/ADD in children, but it is now considered unsafe for the youngest group of our population. The effect which stood behind this treatment was the expanded attention span of children when they were using their substance. This improved the cognitive function of children and helped them to stay focused, overcoming the negative sides of the syndrome. Their overall emotional stability was also positively affected, as well as their calmness and stressfulness. From time to time, Pemoline was also used in the treatment of narcolepsy, with the same benefits present with the children who suffer from ADHD/ADD.

One of the most significant benefits of this substance is its nootropic activity, which is increasingly popularizing this chemical substance nowadays. The proposed mechanism which classifies this substance as a nootropic substance is its effect on the development of the synapses in the central nervous system. It also increases the memory, especially the memory that is short termed. The formation of RNA in the brain is increased, which significantly impacts the speed of the memory recall. These nootropic benefits vary in the population, so not all of the people could experience the same effects when administered with the same dosage of Pemoline.

Recommended dosage of Pemoline

This substance is extremely potent, so this factor should certainly be taken into consideration. Therefore, it is recommended to consult a medical professional before you decide to start a nootropic treatment using this chemical substance. The typical recommended dosage given in the studies and reviews is a single pill of about 37.5mg of Pemoline. The studies have shown that the best part of the day for you to take the pill and experience its top benefits is in the morning. Your medical professional should also be able to suggest a safe range for intake, which most would recommend at 50mg to 75mg. Everything which crosses the 110mg barrier is forbidden and not recommended under any circumstances.

Before you decide to start the treatment with this nootropic substance, along with the dosage and consultation with a medical professional, one must also consider all the side effects. The advice is to start with lower doses for a certain time and then gradually increasing it, while respecting the limit suggested by the sources.

Pemoline side effects

The side effects for this substance are numerous, but are minor. However, some of it are serious and should be taken into consideration when using this chemical substance. The most common side effects are insomnia and irritability. Users can also experience side effects such as nausea, headaches, hallucinations, increased heart rate, liver irritation, tics, and also the exacerbation of Tourette’s syndrome.

The toxicology studies have found out that this chemical affects liver negatively, so people who suffer from serious liver and kidney diseases, epilepsy, Tourette’s syndrome, and seizures should not use this compound. The combination with alcohol should be avoided, as well as the use in people who have a history of alcohol or drug abuse, both of which can affect the liver stance.

Why Do Some People Experience Headaches When Using Nootropics

Many people complain of headaches when using nootropics, especially racetams and cholinergics. There have been cases of other side effects as well like nausea and restlessness, but headaches seem to be the most frequently occurring side effect. It can be really irritating for the user if he/she gets headaches while trying to improve mental functioning.

Racetams like piracetam and aniracetam are especially known for causing unwanted headaches and even slight to severe migraines. Still, nootropics are generally safe to use and the chances of getting a headache depends on the dosage and user. There exist rational explanations for such side effects. Headaches caused by nootropics are not a cause for concern in most cases and also may be avoided by making use of some remedies.

The reason for such headaches is related to how nootropics work to enhance mental functioning. Most cognitive nootropic supplements work by affecting neurotransmitters and receptors inside the brain, often increasing their concentrations or up regulating the receptors. These neurotransmitters are responsible for memory formation and retention, learning, concentration, focus and attention span.

Neurotransmitters are released at a nerve ending, from where they travel across the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors. Because of the increased activity of neurotransmitters due to nootropics, there is a demand of higher concentrations of precursors for these neurotransmitters inside the brain. If the demand is not met, this over activity leads to depletion of neurotransmitters.headaches

Often, there aren’t enough precursors pre-existing to match up with the increased demand. These headaches can be compared with cramps and body ache that one feels after a long strenuous activity or exercise. The pain is due to the fact that the body is not used to working copiously for a long time. Same is the case with heightened brain activity and headaches. Just like the body gets used to an exercise after some time period, the brain adjusts to the enhanced neural functioning.

One way to deal with the problem of side effect of headaches is to consume precursor supplements along with cognitive nootropics. This will ensure that concentration levels of precursors stay high when there is an increase in demand and neurotransmitters are not depleted. For example, when taking racetams, use of choline supplements is recommended. This eases up the strain to keep up with the high demand of acetylcholine and prevents choline deficiency.

The use of choline or acetylcholine precursors is thought to help reduce the headaches caused by types of nootropics that work on acetylcholine receptors. The exact mechanisms of how this works is not completely understood because there are many steps and contributing factors in the synthesis, release and binding of acetylcholine. Nevertheless, supplementing with choline has anecdotally been reported to reduce the occurrence and severity of these headaches.

Nootropic users can increase acetylcholine with precursors like choline. The human body produces choline by itself, and most has be obtained through diet. Beef liver and eggs have high choline content. Another way is to give your brain time to adjust to the hyper neural activity. This can be ensured by starting off with smaller doses of the nootropic supplements and gradually increasing the dosage. This also helps you in finding out how your body reacts to the nootropics.

But if the headaches persist and continue to get stronger, it is recommended that you consult with a medical professional and revise your nootropic dosage. These headaches may not always be caused by nootropics alone. If the headache persists after adding in choline precursors, stop using all supplements and consult your doctor.

Picamilon – A Combination of Vitamin B3 & GABA

Picamilon represents a synthetic combination of the GABA neurotransmitter and vitamin B3, also known as niacin. This nootropic substance has the capability of providing vasodilatatory and anxiolytic effects which can offer many benefits to consumers. This substance was first developed in the former U.S.S.R. and actually represents an enhanced form of the neurotransmitter GABA and is able to cross the blood brain barrier, unlike GABA itself.

Due to its metabolism in the brain, this substance breaks into its two original parts, GABA and niacin. Vitamin B3 or niacin has a vasodilatatory effect on brain blood vessels and enhances blood flow, while GABA works as an inhibitory neurotransmitter which provides calming anxiolytic effects.

Similar to other nootropics which affect the neurotransmitter concentrations and brain receptors activity, prolonged use of picamilon could lead to tolerance which requires additional doses, yet this nootropic is best cycled. All of the studies which have been done in the past were conducted in U.S.S.R. and in scientific terms is available in abstract forms. This article provides facts given by these abstracts.

Mechanism of action

As said, picamilon represents a combination of vitamin B3 and GABA. This combination breaks after it passes blood brain membrane. Lower concentrations of GABA could lead to increased stress, so additional GABA concentrations delivered by this nootropic many lead to an anxiolytic effect. GABA reduces neuronal excitability and brings an individual into sedated state which may help a person to relax.
On the other hand, niacin has potent vasodilatatory properties. Numerous studies have shown that niacin increases blood flow to brain more efficiently. The additional blood brings more nutrients into the brain, as well as oxygen, which benefits the brain metabolism and cognitive enhancing effects of this substance.

Recommended dosage for picamilon

The recommended dosage for picamilon could be found in he Russian encyclopedia of drugs called RLSNET. This encyclopedia recommends a dosage of 20-50 mg taken 2 to 3 times each day for cerebrovascular conditions, and for calmative purposes this dosage could go from 200 to 300 mg for a 4 to 6 week period. One of the performed studies suggests that a dosage of 60-120 per day benefits elderly when it comes to modest depression. After dosing, it takes about an hour for a complete effect of this nootropic.

Picamilon potential interactions

The mechanism of action of this nootropic is linked to the GABA neurotransmitter, so using this substance with other medicine which interacts with this neurotransmitter should be avoided. This means that picamilon should be avoided in combination with antiepileptic drugs or benzodiazepines, which have an effect on GABA. As far as it comes to nootropic drugs which have the same mechanism, combination with phenibut should be avoided. Anxiolytic substances, such as bacopa, magnesium and aniracetam, should be avoided.
Another mechanism of picamilon is a vasodilatatory effect, so combination with drugs that enhance vasodilatation should be totally avoided. These include natural nootropics called vinpocetine and vincamine, as well as nitroglycerine and similar nitrate medicine, erectile dysfunction medicine such is Viagra, and antihypertensive medicine, since the combination of those could potentially lead to hypotension, shock and death.

GABA and picamilon

Benefits of picamilon

1. Brain blood flow enhancement

This substance is listed as an essential medication for treating ischemia, cerebrovascular conditions and migraine in Russia. It has a vasodilatatory activity which is probably caused by the niacin part of the molecule. In a study which consisted of 28 patients has shown that this chemical is effective when it comes to chronic cerebral insufficiency.

2. Non-muscular relaxant

Picamilon has shown to be causing brain relaxation without an effect on muscle tissue, which especially benefits sportsmen. The sedative part of myorelaxation is totally avoided when this substance is used, unlike for brain activity which is normalized and relaxed. Another comment from the studies linked to sportsmen is that picamilon supports people who work under the conditions of great stress.

3. Learning and cognitive effect

When compared to piracetam in some studies, picamilon has shown a better effect on learning. After amnesia related to electroshock, rodents in the study were able to improve their water maze navigation (a test designed for the ability of learning).

4. Normalizing / Anti-stress effect

Picamilon has helped the respondents in the studies for chronic stress, bringing the brain to a normalized state. The stress mostly increases lipid peroxidation in brain which leads to a much lower concentration of endogenous antioxidants in body. Lower concentration of antioxidants allows oxidants to disrupt the normal metabolism and cause oxidative stress which could lead to many conditions and diseases. One area of research has noted that the effect of picamilon was significant enough to lower the stress levels of lipid peroxidation and cause the identical level with control group, which was not under a stress.

How safe is it?

In therapeutic doses, which are given above, picamilon hasn’t shown serious or even mild side effects. Numerous studies have shown that human patiens, who have used picamilon in recommended doses, haven’t suffered from side effects. Yet, then Russian encyclopedia for drugs has listed headache, lightheadedness, nausea, agitation and anxiety (paradoxically) as plausible side effects. Patients who suffer from kidney disease should avoid picamilon use and consult a medical professional before any usage of this nootropic.

Vincamine – A Natural Brain Nootropic

Most people believe that nature has offered us only the best, so it is no wonder that a certain part of the population still favors natural products when it comes to nootropics. Some prefer natural substances to the synthesized ones, and that is completely normal because every market has the right treatment and product for each consumer. For those who wish to start a natural nootropic therapy, our recommendation is vincamine, a natural supplement which works as a vasodilator of peripheral blood vessels. Brain blood vessels belong to the peripheral vascular system, so this substance increases the blood flow, as well as oxygen supply, to the brain.

Due to its abilities, vincamine increases clarity of thought, mental energy, heightened alertness and intellectual processing, nothing less efficient than nootropic synthesized substances. It is available under many different generic names on the market, depending on the country and location. Beside its supplemental activity, vincamine is also used as a common component of fragrances, as well as an essential precursor to many pharmaceuticals.

Vincamine is a natural derivative of Vinca minor, also known as the “Periwinkle” plant in English, and it is found in the leaves of this species, compromising about 50 percent of all indole alkaloids of the plant. Less used natural source is the Cataranthus roseus species. The first extraction of this compound was in the 1950s, when a research team discovered that alkaloids from Vinca minor manifest vasoactive properties. Vincamine has a much more potent descendant called Vinpocetine, which represents a purified form of Vincamine, which is highly preferred by consumers.

Vincamine effects

Vincamine has had its therapeutic use for almost thirty years, but a certain mechanism with its effects is still unravelled, with many current pharmacological studies working on this substance. A certain thing is that vincamine acts as an efficient peripheral vasodilatator by relaxing smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, allowing them to widen and let the excess blood into the brain. Dilatated blood vessels bring extra oxygen to brain which enhances brain metabolism and brings additional energy designed for thinking, memory, motorics etc. Brain metabolism is related to glucose uptake which, in the combination with oxygen, speeds up the brain.

vincamine vasodilation

Another great benefit of vincamine is that it is has specific effects oncertain parts of the brain. A part of the brain called locus coeruleus is involved in dealing with physiological reply as well as panic and stress. Neurons in this area of the brain have the ability, as we age, to weaken and lose its effectiveness, leading to poorer planning and thinking. Vincamine enhances the effectiveness of these neurons and improves memory and other cognitive functions, enabling them to overcome the neuronal decline due to age.

Vincamine benefits

Its vasodilatatory mechanism gives the ability of numerous nootropic benefits and potentiates its true cognitive effects. The vasodilatatory mechanism allows an increase of blood flow which enables the brain to function properly. Besides the fact that it could be used as a nootropic remedy, vincamine is also used in various conditions as a pharmaceutical in treating Meniere’s syndrome and vertigo. It helps an individual to overcome the difficulties related to mood changes, sleeping, depression, hypertension, hearing problems and even a decreased eye blood flow.

The ability to enhance cognitive effects has given vincamine a roll as a potential medication for Alzheimer’s disease. Numerous studies have shown that it normalizes brain-wave patterns in seniors who are experiencing memory defects. Another interesting, yet less researched benefit, is that it could be used as a treatment for a type of organic brain syndrome caused by the alcohol intake.

Personal experiences have suggested that vincamine truly increases cognitive efficiency. This supplement, according to consumers, enhances concentration and increases memory which meliorates problem solving and thinking. Overall effects of vincamine are aimed towards mood improvement with a feeling of an enhanced well-being.

Vincamine Dosage

Even though it is a natural product, this herbal supplement is strong and its doses should be controlled when used. Staying within the recommended dosage range is important so it is advised that consumers follow instructions when this substance is prescribed. Recommended dose is 30 mg twice a day. An important notice is that vincamine is still a new nootropic substance, so it is advisable to consult a medical professional before vincamine use. For starters, it is important to begin with a smaller dose and then gradually increase to the recommended level, once an individual is more familiar with the benefits and side effects of vincamine.

Vincamine Side Effects

Vincamine has few side effects of which most of them are minor, like gastrointestinal problems. In some rare occasions, these side effects could be prolonged, so in that case the use of this product should be discontinued. If the proper consultation with a medical professional is carried and the consumer complies with the instructions, the chances of experiencing side effects is minimal.


Vincamine represents a desirable nootropic for those consumers who want a natural product. It increases cognitive abilities and has neuroprotective benefits, by increasing peripheral blood flow to the brain. It helps an individual to motivate himself/herself, removes brain fog and helps a person to get better focus. A purified form of vincamine called vinpocetine is preferred nowadays, because of its more potent benefits, but vincamine is still available for the use and is widely consumed by nootropic users. There are few side effects which should be considered like gastrointestinal symptoms, so a proper consultation with a medical professional should be conducted before vincamine usage.

Alpha Brain: A Nootropic Product Review

Even though nootropic drugs have already gone beyond the radar, it’s fair to assume that the wide range of supplements and drugs today may have turned off some people. When bombarded with a plethora of all-too-similar products, reactions from some consumers is to simply give up and not even bother dwelling further. As a result, they’re likely to miss out on how such supplements can boost their brain function.

The new product, called Alpha Brain, is said to mix everything conveniently in a single supplement. Basically, you won’t have to take in or experiment different nootropic drugs every day to achieve any brain-enhancing effects each day.

A Close Look at Alpha Brain

The widely acclaimed product came from a common perception of nootropics as an ideal supplement for anyone who wants to be smart in a direct and hassle-free manner. Onnit, Alpha Brain’s manufacturer, was determined to come up with a capsule with harmonious balance of nootropic chemicals. The product, Alpha Brain, is said to offer an ideal solution for people in need of pushing their mental power and intelligence beyond their natural limitations. All it takes is to simply pop a single Alpha Brain pill once a day. Based from numerous satisfied buyers, the effects are said to be “awesome.”

Effects of the Alpha Brain

Effects of the Alpha Brain

Due to its sophisticated combination of nootropic chemicals, Alpha Brain is ideal for enhancing a person’s energy level, mental capabilities, mood, and concentration. Such effects have been marked more frequently than its rival products, making Alpha Brain consistent with higher beneficial nootropics in every pill. Essentially, people can attain a lot more mental enhancing properties when they buy the product.

Individuals Benefiting from Alpha Brain

It’s fair enough to assume that anyone who prefers enhanced mental capabilities can benefit from the Alpha Brain. It’s no surprise that students dealing with a lot of school work are among the candidates. If you feel like boosting your concentration to higher levels is better compared to studying for a long period of time, then Alpha Brain is a product you can count on.

In addition, the product is recommended for anyone new to nootropic supplements. Veteran users are more at ease in fiddling with a number of supplements to create their own “nootropic snack” for their mental requirements. But on the flip side, Alpha Brain makes it easier for first timers since everything needed is housed in a pill.

Buying Alpha Brain

If you’re still doubtful to the value of Alpha Brain, then it’s best to take your time to look through endorsements made about the product. One of the many high profile celebrities to have endorsed the Alpha Brain is Joe Rogan, who came away impressed with the supplement’s efficacy.

Aside from Rogan, there millions of users who have gone online to write positive reviews about Alpha Brain. In a similar fashion, the Alpha Brain is indeed a reputable product backed by many who believe in its brain and mood enhancing properties.

Acetylcholine/Choline Precursors to Stack with Racetams

bags of cholineRacetams are special types of nootropics that have a pyrrolidone nucleus and their primary purpose is to enhance different cognitive and mental functions. By using racetam supplements, one can enhance his/her focus, attention span, concentration and mood. One of the most well-known and commonly used racetams is piracetam, which is used in several countries to fight symptoms of different mental conditions ranging from Senile dementia to Schizophrenia.

What seems to be common among most racetam drugs is that they allosterically modulate acetylcholine receptors to enhance their activity and thus speed up the process of signal transfer in the nervous system and increase memory capacity. They also may stimulate the production of different neurotransmitters.

Surveys have shown that the consumption of racetam supplements is highest among college students. But that doesn’t imply that students are the only ones that can benefit from these drugs. Business executives, professors, basically anyone who works in a fast-paced but a stressful environment and needs a higher amount of mental focus can use the supplements to their advantage. Customers of nootropics range from all different ages and may use them for different purposes.

If racetam nootropics are stacked with choline or acetylcholine precursors, it may boost their effectiveness and potentiate their positive effects on cognitive abilities. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter among living organisms, which aids in transmitting electric signals throughout the nervous system via synapses. It is a very important neurotransmitter responsible for cognitive functioning, like memory formation and retention.

Choline is a natural precursor molecule for acetylcholine, which is formed when choline forms an ester bond with an acetic acid molecule. Hence, racetam nootropics with acetylcholine precursors may have far better effects in comparison to just consuming racetam supplements alone. Whether or not one will benefit from stacking racetams with choline is completely dependent on the individuals’ physiology.

There are a number of effective acetylcholine or choline precursors that can be stacked with racetam supplements. The best ones are listed and discussed below:


Phosphatidylcholine is a class of phospholipids (lipids with a phosphate group) that is turned into choline. Our natural sources of Phosphatidylcholine are foods like egg yolk and soy beans. The process of conversion to choline happens inside our bodies. Phosphatidylcholine as a dietary supplement is usually purified from lecithin (a brownish yellow fatty substance in plants and animals). Once inside our bodies, ten to twelve percent of the amount is converted into choline.

Choline Bitartrate

Choline Bitartrate is a salt from which choline can be obtained by the body, after the salt has been consumed. Choline Bitartrate has a high absorption rate which means it is readily absorbed by our digestive system. With the help of this supplement, high levels of choline and consequently acetylcholine can be achieved. Another choline salt that is commonly used as a supplement is Choline Citrate.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine or ALCAR

ALCAR is a precursor for acetylcholine. Inside the body, it is broken down into a chemical called acetyl-COA, which can form acetylcholine by simply combining with a choline molecule. Hence, it helps in making the biological process of converting choline to acetylcholine even more efficient. ALCAR is often used with choline salts like Choline Bitartrate to achieve maximum effects.

Citicoline (CDP choline)

CDP choline is one of the most effective choline supplements for increasing acetylcholine levels. It is so effective and potent, that it doesn’t require any other choline supplements with its use and also may have fewer side effects. CDP choline can pass through the blood brain barrier releases and releases choline in the brain during its metabolism. Thus, it makes more choline molecules available for conversion to acetylcholine.


Alpha GPC

Alpha GPC is a naturally occurring choline compound found in milk and brain. It is also a precursor molecule for acetylcholine. It is synthesized from soy lecithin to be used as a nootropics supplement to treat dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Like CDP choline, its high effectiveness makes it possible to use it without other choline sources.

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Apart from these precursors, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can also be combined with racetam nootropics. Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme which breaks down acetylcholine. The inhibitor’s job is to stop the working of this enzyme and thus leads to higher levels of acetylcholine inside the brain.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may be used in combination with racetams and choline. Usually, using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may be effective without choline. Stacking them with choline may increase negative side effects depending on the person. Two of the most popular acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used are huperzine A and galantamine. Many nootropic formulations make use of the ACh inhibitor + choline combination as less choline per capsule is needed to get a positive effect on acetylcholine levels in the brain.

How Safe Is the Use of Ampakines Like Sunifiram and Unifiram?

Sunifiram is a popular and fairly new nootropic that belongs to the “ampakines” family. While most reports have led to consistent and positive results, many ampakines haven’t still been thoroughly studied.

Some clinical tests in animals have been done to study the effects of sunifiram. These tests have revealed positive effects associated with this nootropic’s use. However, there is a need of more thorough studies to determine its safety. Based on the limited studies, sunifiram seems to be well tolerated, but its long-term profile isn’t known yet.

Unlike most racetams that work mainly as cholinergic compounds, substances like sunifiram and unifiram work to attach themselves while stimulating the glutamate and AMPA receptors.

What Causes Glutamate Excitotoxicity?

Glutamate excitotoxicity results from an excess of glutamate in the body cells. As glutamate builds up in the cell, calcium ions are released. This in turn leads to the activation of enzymes, thereby damaging the cell.

Excitoxicity may result from a number of different factors. In fact, glutamate may act as an excitotoxin in your body. Glutamic acid is associated with glutamate and is commonly present as monosodium glutamate (MSG). MSG is a hazardous food additive used for improving taste and inducing a feeling of “fullness”, which becomes excitotoxic when taken in high doses.

Some studies have also shown that excitoxicity can be a consequence of brain damage. On the contrary, glutamate agonists are also associated with excitotoxicity. Agonists such as kainic acid and NDMA become excitotoxic when taken in high doses. Other factors like alcohol withdrawal can also cause excitotoxicity. This happens when the NMDA receptors get excessively agonized during the process.

Ampakines And Excitotoxicity

Most ampakines aren’t similar to glutamate agonists in terms of their method of action. Glutamate agonists tend to mimic glutamate’s properties for receptor-activation, which is what leads to excitoxicity. On the other contrary, most ampakines like sunifiram and unifiram tend to slow down this receptor activation. By slowing down the receptor currents, ampakines slow down the entire mechanism of AMPA receptor activation. In doing so, ampakines achieve the goal of improving memory as well as cognitive functioning.

It is important to note that the effects of these nootropics vary from study to study and ampakine to ampakine. This simply means that every ampakine has its own unique method of action. Some ampakines may show predominance in different regions of the brain, which is why, there’s a crucial need of thorough studies on the safety of each ampakine.

Some studies have shown that ampakines like sunifiram may play an active role in preventing against the excitotoxicity induced by these substances themselves. Although it has been observed that the AMPA receptor’s intense activation causes this excitoxicity, activation results in the transduction of defensive protein kinases as well. Some studies have revealed that the activation of certain protein kinases may help in offering protection against neurotoxicity. This means, if certain ampakines are able to affect the kinases pathways, they may actually serve as neuroprotective substances.

So, What Can Be Concluded?

Based on past studies, it can be concluded that ampakines like sunifiram and unifiram are safe to use. But, it’s equally important to realize that these substances carry some risks. Science may help in getting a better understanding of glutamatergic transmission, which is why, it is best to use these nootropics with care while making sure that you don’t go beyond the recommended dosage.

Lastly, be cautious while using ampakines in combination with other substances. Just because a new nootropic seems to be safe by itself, doesn’t mean it will not become toxic when used in combinations. In fact, certain ampakines may enhance their excitotoxicity when combined with other substances.

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibiting Nootropics & Their Benefits

Acetylcholinersterase is an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine within the brain. Acetylcholine is the target neurotransmitter of many nootropic supplements. Having higher than normal levels of acetylcholinesterase may have negative effects on the cholinergic system and cognitive functioning in general.

Acetylcholine & Acetylcholinesterase Relationship

Acetylcholine is prominent not only in cognitive functioning, but also muscle movement, communication and coordination. It helps to trigger the contraction and movement of muscles. The neurotransmitter basically triggers your muscles to move and work in the way your brain wants to. Obviously, this process is very complex as there are different systems involved however this is the basic function of acetylcholine in brain-to-muscle communication.

Like many different enzymes in the body, acetylcholinesterase is necessary for regular human function and homeostasis in the brain. The enzyme terminates the signals from acetylcholine. Without acetylcholinesterase, our bodies would go into convulsions or paralysis because our bodies would not be able to control muscle functions from acetylcholine signals. This is why there is a natural amount of acetylcholinesterase within our brains.

Acetylcholinesterase & Acetylcholine

Types of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors come in two types: reversible and irreversible. Irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot be used safely in mammals. This is because these types terminate acetylcholine in a loop which can cause seizures, convulsions and paralysis. Reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be used safely in humans and are a target for Alzheimer’s treatments.

Reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can also be used as nootropics. Many popular nootropic blends such as Alpha Brain work primarily off the function of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. These blends need acetylcholinesterase inhibitors to synergistically activate the very small amounts of other cholinergic ingredients. This is why these supplements work well.

Many people will also include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors into their nootropic stacks. They are very synergistic and also very powerful. One needs to be careful with how the proportion a stack with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor because only a very small amount is needed to activate the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting properties. This is why this method is only utilized for experienced and advanced nootropic users.

Huperzine A

Huperzine AHuperzine A is a type of Chinese moss that has potent reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibiting properties. It can be obtained as a supplement within the United States and many other countries. Only very small amounts of huperzine A is needed to activate the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting qualities.

Huperzine A is the main acetylcholinesterase inhibiting component in the product Alpha Brain and other nootropic blends. It is very effective and synergistic with cholinergics like citicoline and alpha GPC. Huperzine A also combines well with the racetams and will produce very strong cholinergic effects when stacked together.

Huperzine A may have side effects when used alone however these will most likely manifest when used in a stack. Side effects may include: headache, nausea, gastrointestinal problems and depression amongst others.


Galantamine is another popular reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that may be used as both a general nootropic and Alzheimer’s aid. It may be prescribed by a doctor or obtained over-the-counter as a supplement . Galantamine is a natural alkaloid derived from a number of flowering plants in several species.

As with huperzine A, galantamine is also a very powerful acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It needs a very small amount to produce benefits as a nootropic. Galantamine should be used with caution and especially within a cholinergic stack. It can also produce side effects consistent with cholinergic hyper stimulation.

Acetylcholinesterase & Safety

Using reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors requires knowledge and care. One must use acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the right dosages and amounts. Overall, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be seen as very safe when used in the right dosages and circumstances.

If you are looking to use acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in a nootropic stack with choline and racetams it is important to try both on their own first. This is because adding all three of these at once could increase the risk of side effects.

 It is thought that overloading the cholinergic system in some people can cause many negative side effects. This may not be true in all people however it seems to be a consistent problem nootropic users have. To avoid these problems always start slow and with smaller dosages. This will drastically reduce the risk of side effects.

A Comparison between Piracetam & Aniracetam

You may be deciding between piracetam and aniracetam. Perhaps you cannot afford to buy both or are simply just looking for a general comparison between the two supplements. Both piracetam and aniracetam have a lot of similarities and differences to evaluate.


In terms of popularity, piracetam is much more popular than aniracetam as a nootropic. This does not mean that piracetam is better than aniracetam but simply means that piracetam gets more publicity and widespread use. Aniracetam is the next most popular racetam next to piracetam. Regardless of this, piracetam is still over three times as popular as piracetam.

Piracetam also has a big advantage over aniracetam in the popularity department. It has been around longer and has many more studies than aniracetam. Since it was the first racetam developed it is often mentioned in a lot more in literature. Also, piracetam has been approved for a lot more medical uses in countries that have registered it as a drug which gives it even further publicity


Aniracetam is stronger in potency than piracetam. The average dosage is slightly smaller than with piracetam. Most people will dose 750-1500mg in comparison to 800-3000mg with piracetam. Piracetam is water soluble which means it is best taken on an empty stomach whereas aniracetam is fat soluble and best taken with food.

The bioavailability and half-lives of both substances are very different. Piracetam has a very good oral bioavailability of near 100% whereas aniracetam only has an oral bioavailability of 8.5%-11.5%. This is due to the fact that aniracetam is subject to a first pass metabolism in the liver. Piracetam has a half-life of 4-5 hours in comparison to aniracetam which has a short half-life of 1.5-2.5 hours.


Aniracetam is stronger than piracetam regardless of the much lower bioavailability and half-life. Both of these nootropic racetams act similarly on cholinergic pathways by acting as positive allostertic modulators of the acetylcholine receptors. The cholinergic effects may seem quite similar with possible increases in learning, memory and sensory perception. Piracetam is slightly stronger than aniracetam as a cholinergic nootropic.

Piracetam has little if any effects on glutamatergic systems. Aniracetam on the other hand acts as a modulator of the AMPA glutamate receptor. The ampakine-like activity of aniracetam may explain its slightly stronger benefits despite its lower half life and bioavailability.

Aniracetam may also affect certain serotonin receptors in conjunction with acetylcholine and glutamate receptors. This might explain possible anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) effects observed in animal models. This may be an added benefit of aniracetam that some people may experience. The benefit of this is that aniracetam may promote these effects without any sedation or inhibition of the mind.


Both piracetam and aniracetam are very safe supplements. They are some of the oldest racetams with several decades of published use. Neither have very high potential of overdose or addiction. One must still be careful when using these two as both can produce side effects especially evident in higher dosages.

The side effects of piracetam and aniracetam are likely to be similar. Headaches, nausea, depression and irritability may all be common. Both may also stimulate brain fog possibly due to the cholinergic hyperactivity caused by an off balance in catecholamine homeostasis. This might be able to be solved with certain tweaking and neurotransmitter support in sensitive individuals.


Both aniracetam and piracetam are different. When comparing which is a better nootropic, aniracetam will likely win due to its wider scope of benefits. Aniracetam is becoming increasingly more popular however it is likely to remain less popular than piracetam in the future.

Aniracetam and piracetam are great racetams to stack together. Both of these nootropics are very affordable and are well tolerated in most users. Stacking them together will allow for a wider range of effects overlapping into the cholinergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic systems. Adding in a choline stack with these two racetams may help to potentiate the effects even further.

The CILTEP Stack Review – Does it Really Work?

The CILTEP stack stands for “Chemically Induced Long-Term Potentiation”. This stack has some basic research behind it and a solid principal however it has not been fully evaluated in medical research. That’s why at this point, it is just a theory. Unfortunately, for this reason, we cannot tell you exactly if it will work and only go over the theory to give a better understanding of CILTEP and how it works.

Long Term Potentiation

Long term potentiation (LTP) is a favorite theory explaining learning and memory. For decades, neuroscientists were unable to understand the exact mechanisms of learning and memory. They understood that memory and learning could not be a result of new neurons as new neurons obviously did not increase. This would start a new search for the mechanisms behind learning and memory.

Neuroscientists started to explore the idea of signal strength changes between neurons. This theory is known as synaptic plasticity. LTP is a primary form of synaptic plasticity and works as a dial between neurons to help amplify the signal. This potentiating signal comes in the form of electrical pulses and can help to continuously amplify the signal for hours to months. This is what is known today as the LTP form of synaptic plasticity.

Chemically Induced Long Term Potentiation

Long term potentiation might be modulated and changed through several methods. One way LTP is thought to be increased is through chemical means. This is where the CILTEP theory comes into play. Chemically increasing LTP is thought to be the main nootropic action behind this stack.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) works as a secondary messenger and signal transductor. Increasing cAMP may influence the strength of hormones and certain neurotransmitter signals. This is the main idea behind CILTEP. Increasing cAMP is thought to chemically produce benefits of learning and memory through activating LTP.

We all have levels of cAMP within our body however like many processes it can be metabolized by certain enzymes. The enzyme that breaks down cAMP is known as phosphodiesterase (PDE). PDE is needed in the body to keep certain processes stable.

PDE inhibitors are drugs that inhibit the PDE enzyme to improve cAMP and cGMP levels. These drugs have a variety of different functions on the body depending on their targets and pathways.  There are eleven types of PDE inhibitors in the body and PDE inhibiting drugs can have a variety of different functions. Recently certain types of PDE inhibiting drugs have been of interest to the medical community as possible targets for new mood and cognitive enhancing drugs.

Only certain PDE’s may be suitable for cAMP degradation and therefore possible learning and memory enhancements. PDE4 inhibition has been suggested to be one of the primary targets for new antidepressant, antipsychotic as well as learning and memory enhancement drugs.


Ingredients in CILTEPForskohli cAMP

It is possible to inhibit PDE4 and therefore increase levels of cAMP with a combination of supplements. This is where the common CILTP stack comes into play. Luteolin is a natural PDE4 inhibitor found in several types of foods like peanuts and artichoke. Since luteolin extract is hard to find, most people use artichoke extract as a primary PDE4 inhibitor in the CILTEP stack.

The second aspect of the CILTEP theory is to increase cAMP in conjunction with inhibiting PDE4. Only one such supplement has yet been discovered to directly increase cAMP. The indian plant coleus forskohli, is thought to increase LTP by increasing the levels of cAMP. At this time, forskohli is the only suitable target to increase cAMP in the CILTEP stack. This is why a very basic CILTEP stack is composed usually of forskohli and artichoke extract.

CILTEP Conclusion

We cannot comment on if CITEP works however many people including several doctors have supported the theory. LTP may increase learning and memory so therefore chemically inducing this process may defiantly help to improve cognitive functioning. There is still a lot of mystery in the LTP field and neuroscience so this area is not at all fully understood.

With the data that is available, CILTEP is likely to help improve cognitive functioning. The scope of this improvement may be only of little significance until better and mode advanced PDE inhibitors become available. We suggest too stick to well-known and proven nootropics until more research has been applied to the stack.

Citations – cAMP & LTP – Forskohli LTP

Inositol Nootropic for Treating OCD and Panic Disorder

Inositol is a supplement closely related to the B vitamin group.  The structure of the compound is closely related to glucose.  It is not considered an essential nutrient because it is produced within the body in adequate amounts.

Inositol falls into a group of supplements that are important for health in the body but not considered a vitamin or mineral. Other supplements in this group include: creatine, coenzyme 10, choline, L-carnitine and SAM-e. Inositol is comprised of 9 stereoisomers. The stereoisomer myo-inositol is 90% prevalent and shows the most benefit as a supplement. For this reason, the term myo-inositol and inositol are usually interchangeable. The majority of supplements are created solely from myo-inositol.

The safety of inositol has been evaluated in high dosages. It is a natural molecule with little toxicity. Lower dosages can have positive benefits on insulin sensitivity and fertility where much higher dosages have shown positive effects on neurological function. Inositol has a low permeability for the blood brain barrier which may explain why large dosages may be required to see benefits.

How Inositol Works In the Brain

myo-inositolInositol’s primary neurological function is to produce the structural basis for secondary messengers within the brain. A secondary messenger works to transmit and amplify the signals of certain hormones and neurotransmitters. One common example of a secondary messenger system is the cAMP system. Inositol’s secondary messenger system is known as the phosphoinositol (PI) system.  


The phosphoinositol (PI) system helps to act as signal transductor for a number of hormones. The two secondary massagers in this system are inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These secondary messengers help to influence a number of hormones via their pathways. IP3 may control insulin homeostatsis via activation of M3 acetylcholine receptor pathway. This is likely the method to explain Inositol’s positive benefit on insulin sensitivity.

Neurotransmitter Receptors

The PI system has an interaction with the a1 adrenergic receptors. Antagonists of the a1 receptors are common targets for anti-panic/anxiety and vasodilation drugs. The a1 receptors influence vasoconstriction, sweating and a number of other physiological symptoms in the body relating to panic. The PI system secondary messenger, DAG interacts with the calcium content and channels relating to the a1 receptors. This could explain the inhibitory effects of inositol on panic and anxiety.

The PI system also has effects on acetylcholine receptors. It seems to only influence M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors exclusively. The secondary messenger in the PI system, IP3 works as a signaling pathway for the M1 and M3 receptors.  The M1 receptors help to control and regulate a number of functions in the body and may influence areas of cognitive functioning. M3 receptors influence insulin and smooth muscle tone.

Inositol Treatment for OCD, Panic & Anxiety

One study showed high dosages of inositol were as effective as an SSRI medication for treating panic disorders, OCD as well as general anxiety. This well published study claimed that higher dosages of Inositol in the 18 gram range showed the most positive results. The reason this high dosage is needed is because inositol is not efficient at crossing the blood brain barrier and these high dosages are needed for these results.

The effects on Inositol and panic/anxiety treatment are likely due to the manipulation of the a1 receptor. Many a1 blockers may help to treat bi-polar depression and related panic effects. This method of action is likely to explain positive effects of inositol on OCD, depression and anxiety/panic

Inositol Side Effects

The well published study relating to high dosage inositol treatment for OCD and panic showed little side effects. While typically, inositol has much less side effects than SSRI medication, it may produce some negative side effects in high dosages.

The cholinergic effects of high dosage inositol may produce negative side effects such as excessive salivation and sweating. This is due to the specific acetylcholine receptors inositol modulates. Other side effects such as gastrointestinal side effects are very common along with irritability. Inositol may be as effective as SSRI’s however these high dosages are likely to produce very subtle to mild side effects in these dosage ranges.


How to Build a Nootropic Stack for Beginners

Many beginners read about nootropic stacking and get confused due to the plethora of information available. Stacks can be very effective but can also have downsides if used improperly. The key to a successful stack is balance and patience.

The best stacks are built through trial and error and should be a combination of both nootropics and brain nutrients. The most advanced stacks are built to increase the efficiency of neurotransmitters as well as to improve the health of the brain long term.

Understanding your neurochemistry is the first step to a successful brain stack. A highly successful stack for one person may not be the best for another person. One common mistake is to pile on too much too fast. This makes it hard to pinpoint what is working and what is not. Cholinergics, ampakines or dopaminergics may be working but it may be impossible to tell which area to focus in if you are using all at once.

Using too much can create too many side effects and turn you off nootropics for good. Also, some nootropics can work against each other. This is where a complete understanding of neurochemistry comes into play. Follow these steps to understand the proper steps to building an advanced beginner stack.

Step 1: Build a Solid Foundation

aniracetam powder

Starting with the basics is always your best bet when building a nootropic stack. Starting with the basics would be to start with a cholinergic that has been well researched and proven. Piracetam and noopept are great to start with as powerful cholinergics. You may decide to use these or other racetams like aniracetam as a starting point.

Buy several cholinergic nootropics and see what works best on its own. When picking out a cholinergic, some are good to stack and others not so much. The ones not recommended to stack are already powerful on their own and do not usually get benefits from adding in weaker products. Here is what works and what doesn’t when stacking together.

Stack well together (as cholinergics)

  • Piracetam
  • Aniracetam
  • Oxiracetam
  • Phenylpiracetam

Work well alone (as cholinergics)

  • Noopept
  • Pramiracetam

Step 2: Add Choline if needed

Once you get a cholinergic stack formulated, you may decide to add in acetylcholine-boosting compounds. There are several reasons for this. Adding in acetylcholine, choline and related phospholipids may help to add synergy and make the stack even more powerful. They may also contribute to side effects. This is why a stack has to be completed in steps.

Choline can add great benefits. Choline and acetylcholine boosting compounds like lecithin, choline salts, alpha GPC and citicoline are all part of this family. These compounds may interact differently with your body. Some may produce benefits or side effects while others may not.

Generally it is recommended to add in a choline source but try each unit in the cholinergic stack independently. This will help you to determine if something is causing a reaction. From here determine how to further formulate the stack.

Step 3: Add Supporting Supplements & Nutrients

Once you are confident in your basic nootropic stack you may decide to create an advanced stack. By this time you should have a basic understanding of your neurochemistry. Adding in further supporting nootropics as well as brain nutrients and antioxidants is a true brain stack. The goal of an advanced stack is not only to improve cognitions, but to help to preserve the brain and reduce brain aging.

There are some things to help boost a cholinergic stack. Adding in an ACh inhibitor may help to provide synergy even further. This is another step you can take if cholinergic nootropics are working very well for you. This method is usually done after adding choline and is best for those highly deficient in choline. Adding in an ACh inhibitor may add in further side effects so do it independently of adding a choline source.

You may decide to add in more non-cholinergic nootropics and stimulants. Many of these nootropics may help to provide neurotransmitter support. Improving levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine may all help to add improved benefits to a stack. You may decide to enhance the stack further by creating a mood/anxiolytic stack based on your needs.

There are many natural supplements that help to improve neurotransmitters. Going in depth into this goes beyond the scope of this article and is another topic. This area will come with experimentation and learning.

Step 5: Modify the stack

As you build your nootropic stack you will add in and remove certain supplements. You will find what works and what doesn’t. You may decide to cycle or change stacks in the morning and the evening. This is where the experienced nootropic user learns their body and creates a stack for peak optimal performance.

Can Nootropics Be Anxiolytic

Anxiety is a problem that affects everyone. For many, anxiety is a physiological problem which means your thoughts affect your nervous system which in turn creates a flight or fight response. The best and ultimate way to deal with anxiety is to confront anxious thoughts and change them in order to change the physiological response.

Not everyone’s anxiety is the same. Anxiety can be hard to pinpoint especially in the case of Generalized Anxiety Disorder where anxiety may not seem to have a root cause. For these people, changing the way our brains chemically work may help to reduce anxiety. This can be done in one of two ways by suppressing the anxiety through sedation, or by improving neurochemicals that enhance our mood, perception and cognitive function.
anxiety cycle


GABA is a neurotransmitter that is purely anxiolytic. Increasing and/or modulating the GABAergic system can help to greatly reduce the effects of anxiety. This is because GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Drugs like alcohol, GHB, phenibut, benzodiazepines and barbiturates are all GABAergic. GABAergics are best for people who have physical symptoms of anxiety (ex. increased heart rate, sweating and dizziness)

Unfortunately, while GABA drugs may be great for anxiety, most are also negative on cognition. This is because GABA works against the central nervous system which negatively affects cognitive skills. For this reason, there are not many nootropics that work as GABA substances. Phenibut is a product often sold in nootropic stores however it is not a nootropic. Other nootropics like piracetam and picamilon are derived from the GABA structure however they do not have GABAeric effects.


Serotonin is another vastly important neurotransmitter. It is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, social behavior, appetite, bodily functions and aspects of cognitive functioning. Serotonin is unlike GABA because it is not inhibiting or sedating. There is a definite correlation between serotonin malfunction and anxiety.

Many anti-depressants and anti-anxiety drugs are focused on the aspects of anxiety. These drugs are meant to influence the level of serotonin in the brain. Unfortunately, some of these drugs have negative side effects on cognition. This problem can be related to how these drugs interact with other neurotransmitters.

There are several nootropics that have serotoninergic effects. Serotonin itself cannot cross the blood brain barrier but the precursors, l-tryptophan and 5HTP can. These supplements are generally not mentioned as nootropics however they may offer some small benefit to cognitive functioning.

The other two nootropics that have shown to have serotoninergic effects are aniracetam and noopept. Both of these nootropics have shown to provide anxiolytic effects in animals. The alleged anxiolytic effects are similar in both substances by interacting with 5HT (serotonin) receptors. This is a unique anxiolytic side effect of these cholinergic nootropics not seen with the other racetams.

Other Ways Nootropics May Be Anxiolytic

There are many reports of other non-serotoninergic racetams like piracetam being anxiolytic. While this may be entirely possible, there have been no studies to confirm this. It is highly likely that these effects are not chemical as piracetam and other racetams affect acetylcholine and glutamate. These systems have very little positive effect on anxiety.

These nootropics may work in a way to help by increasing mental capacity and learning. Increasing the working of the brain may help to open new pathways and ways of thinking. This may become especially effective if nootropics are combined with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The goal behind CBT is to inwardly confront anxious thoughts through behavioral action stimuli. Using cholinergic and ampakine nootropics may help to increase the effectiveness of CBT.

Other secondary actions may help to reduce social anxiety. Many people suffering from social anxiety may suffer from a lack of conversational skills which can further increase anxiety. Conversion can also be harder for these people due to inward anxious thoughts. Nootropics may help in these situations by improving conversational skills which may give social anxiety sufferers further confidence.


There are not that many nootropics to help with the chemical problem of anxiety however all nootropics may be helpful as anxiolytics if used in the right manner. Understanding the root of the anxiety is the first step. Using supplements and drugs may help but are never a permanent answer.

Nootropics have been seen to be safe. They are ok to combine with anti-anxiety drugs with the exception of MAO-A inhibitors. It is best to always confront your doctor before starting nootropics if you are depressed or anxious. Changing one neurotransmitter can affect the others and this should be avoided in those suffering from mental conditions.

Citations – aniracetam anxiolytic – noopept anxiolytic

How to Identify & Overcome Low Dopamine

Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter with many important functions. It is the primary reward neurotransmitter with many other implications on cognitive functioning and mood. Dopamine is considered a nootropic neurotransmitter due to its effects on essential cognitive functioning. Many drugs both legal and illegal use the dopamine structure, method or pathway to pharmacologically change the way our brains work.

Dopamine imbalance can cause many problems. Anhedonia (not feeling enjoyment), depression, low libido and cognitive decline may all be caused by low dopamine. The neurotransmitter not only works as a nootropic, but also as an anti-depressant and it is often overlooked as being a problem. Many people with low dopamine may be seen as being depressed and prescribed SSRI’s when in fact, these many do more harm than good (raising serotonin can lower dopamine further).

neurotransmitters: dopamine. seretonin, norepinephrine

Malfunction of dopamine signals is a main theory behind ADHD. ADHD is a very serious problem and it is often not identified soon enough. These people basically have weak dopamine signals due to their chemical makeup. Amphetmaine drugs meant to imitate and amplify dopamine effects are often an only option for these people. These drugs are effective but very unsafe and addictive.

Causes & Symptoms of Low Dopamine?

Finding a root cause for low dopamine is very tricky. There is no way to tell wether or not someone will be low in dopamine. If you do have low dopamine it is important to be mindful and aware as there may be ways to correct the problem. People with low dopamine are more likely to be depressed, have low energy, sex drive and become drug addicts or become addicted to other things (sex, gambling, adrenaline).

Understanding the ADHD mind can help us understand some of the aspects of low dopamine. To the naked eye, most ADHD suffers seem to be very happy. The reason we (non-ADHD sufferers) assume this is becaused people with ADHD often seem very lively and social. This may be true because people with ADHD may be very social and impulsive with a lack of focus.

We may observe these signs as a sign of happiness however this often couldn’t be further from the truth in fact, ADHD sufferers are often very depressed and just don’t show it. ADHD sufferers are also more likely to become addicited to substances or events that increase dopamine response (cocaine, meth, gambling, danger).

Solving Low Dopamine

The good news is that solving low dopamine can be fairly easy. The bad news is that a lot of these drug treatments are not safe. Most substances involving dopamine are stimulants that are also addictive. For safety, these types of drugs should ALWAYS be ruled out first. They are not a long-term or viable treatment option for low dopamine and having low dopamine in the first place can increase the desire for these substances even more so avoid at all costs.

Trying to increase dopamine with supplementation is a great option. There are several natural supplements to do this relatively safetly. They are not drugs so one does not need to worry about addiction or downregulation of dopamine receptors. For those with low dopamine, this should always be the first choice. The other less safer option, may be to ask for a MAO-b from your doctor.

Dopamine Precursor Nootropics

L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine

Above is the body’s route of synthesis for natural dopamine. L-Phenylalanine is an amino acid and a precursor to another amino acid, L-tyrosine. In reality, taking either of these amino acids will help to increase the level of dopamine in the brain. They also function mildly as nootropics due to this effect.

Dopamine itself cannot be orally consumed as a supplement because it cannot penetrate the brain. The next best thing to dopamine is its direct precursor, L-DOPA. L-DOPA can be obtained in pure form however it is a prescription prescribed for Parkinson’s disease in many countries. The supplement, mucuna pruriens is rich in L-DOPA and a great nootropic supplement to increase dopamine.

MAO-B Inhibitors

Monoamine oxidase B is an enzyme that breaks down dopamine. MAO-B is necessary in the body however it can be in high levels and negative for maintaining healthy levels of dopamine.

There are two groups of MAO-B inhibitors: reversible and irreversible. Reversible ones are much less effective however they are less dangerous. Irreversible MAO-B inhibitors like Selegiline are very effective for increasing dopamine however they should only be used under the supervision of a doctor.

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