Category: Ampakines

A Guide to Kratom Legality: Where’s Kratom Legal?

Kratom legality is a question which concerns many.

Users want kratom to remain legal as it helps them handle pain, anxiety, and nervousness, boost their disposition and gain extra energy. According to testimonials and stories from consumers, kratom may be used instead of prescription drugs for numerous health conditions. Such as fibromyalgia, arthritis, back pain, melancholy, and even PTSD.

Federal agencies, on the other hand, wish to ban it. They claim that kratom has no health care benefits and poses large health risks.

At the moment, kratom remains legal in certain locations. But it is outlawed in other people and you’ll be able to face serious consequences for disregarding that. Additionally, there are states where kratom legality is not unclear.

What Is Kratom? | Kushfly

Therefore, understanding if atom is legal or not on your geographical location is important to know before you purchase it.

But, before we handle this, let’s look at…

The History of Kratom Use and Legality

Relatively new to the western world, kratom was a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia for centuries. It was used as a stimulant and pain reliever, as well as for several ailments like digestive disorders, intestinal parasites, and cough.

There were not any rules or regulations about kratom. Peasants and employees could freely use it.

From the early 1800s, kratom was found by Dutch settlers. They brought kratom into Europe and started investigating it. Yet, it became popular amongst users only in the early 2000s.

The AKA (American Kratom Association) estimates that there are about 3-5 million kratom consumers in the USA. And, according to the information from 2016, kratom business in the US has been worth over a billion dollars.

Kratom Legality by Country and Continent

Kratom Legality: US

In late August 2016, the DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency) announced it’s intent to place kratom and its active elements under Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. Their motive was kratom’s opioid-like possessions and concern about public security.

While the proposition received major backlash from the general public and has been withdrawn, the battle for kratom proceeds .

Kratom Bans in the US States

Presently, kratom is legal in the United States except for these states:

  • Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Indiana
  • Rhode Island (though Rhode Island may reverse the ban)
  • Vermont (though Vermont can reverse the ban)
  • Wisconsin (although Wisconsin may reverse the ban)

Kratom Bans from the US Cities and Counties

Kratom is also prohibited in the following cities and counties:

  • San Diego at California
  • Monument Town in Colorado
  • Parker Town at Colorado
  • Sarasota County in Florida
  • Jerseyville in Illinois
  • Alton in Illinois
  • Edwardsville at Illinois
  • Alcorn County in Mississippi
  • Belmont County City in Mississippi
  • Blue Mountain City at Mississippi
  • Booneville City in Mississippi
  • Bruce City at Mississippi
  • Burnsville City at Mississippi
  • Caledonia City at Mississippi
  • Calhoun City in Mississippi
  • Calhoun County at Mississippi
  • Columbus City in Mississippi
  • Corinth City at Mississippi
  • Derma City at Mississippi
  • Fulton City at Mississippi
  • Guntown City in Mississippi
  • Itawamba County at Mississippi
  • Iuka City at Mississippi
  • Lowndes County in Mississippi
  • Mantachie City in Mississippi
  • Marietta City at Mississippi
  • Monroe County at Mississippi
  • New Albany City at Mississippi
  • Noxubee County in Mississippi
  • Okolona City in Mississippi
  • Oxford City at Mississippi
  • Pontotoc City in Mississippi
  • Prentiss County at Mississippi
  • Ripley City at Mississippi
  • Saltillo City in Mississippi
  • Senatobia City in Mississippi
  • Tippah County in Mississippi
  • Tishomingo City in Mississippi
  • Tishomingo County in Mississippi
  • Union County at Mississippi
  • Vardaman City at Mississippi
  • Franklin City in New Hampshire

From the remaining locations, it is legal to grow, possess, and use kratom.

A couple of places in the united states regulate or believe in regulating kratom.

For more detailed information on kratom legality in each state, view this post on kratom legality in the United States.

The FDA doesn’t regulate it at this moment, and you do not need a prescription to buy it.

But, kratom cannot be marketed or sold to take care of any sort of condition or disorder. That usually means that kratom is lawful provided that vendors don’t sell it labeled as a dietary supplement.

Kratom Legality: Canada

Kratom legality in Canada is a gray area, similar to the way it is in the USA. There’s also an ongoing debate about whether the government should employ a kratom ban.

In accordance with CFIA (Canadian Food Inspection Agency) and Health Canada, kratom is prohibited if one sells or owns it with a goal to ingest.

Yet, kratom capsules and powder are available for sale in Canada. Provided that it’s not intended for ingestion, kratomemains legal.

Kratom Legality: Europe

Though the European Union has no borders and contains a unified currency, every nation has its own legislation.

Therefore, kratom legality by country will be different.

As of 2016, it is illegal to import, export, or sell kratom in the United Kingdom. There is a UK based kratom firm that claims that kratom is 100% legal in the UK. Nonetheless, the UK Psychoactive Substances Act that came into effect in May 2016, does include in the list of outlawed compounds that produce psychoactive effects.

In 2017, Ireland also enlisted kratom as a Program I prohibited medication.

Kratom also stays a controlled or prohibited substance in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Turkey.

Since 2016, kratom has been listed among major drugs in Italy. It’s illegal to own, sell, or import it there.

In Denmark and Finland, kratom is a controlled substance, one can purchase it with a valid doctor’s prescription.

Germany remains a gray area for kratom users. It is not an illegal substance, but it can only be bought or sold as a a herb that isn’t supposed to be ingested. Therefore, vendors sell it like an ethnobotanical sample or sometimes even as paint.

Hungary includes a similar situation. Kratom is illegal for human consumption, nevertheless it’s possible to purchase and market it like a botanical sample for analytic purposes.

In the rest of the European nations, kratom is now legal.

Kratom Legality: Australia and New Zealand

In 2003, Australia banned kratom as a narcotic material as a result of concerns about possible abuse. But, no actual instances of kratom abuse have happened there.

Since 2009 kratom and its active ingredients are illegal to grow, purchase, or sell in New Zealand without a medical prescription. If you do have one, you can use kratom in New Zealand without problems.

Kratom Legality: Asia

Paradoxically, the region that kratom is indigenous to, does not permit its free use. At least not anywhere.


ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, describes kratom as a drug. No traditional medicines or dietary supplements in these countries can comprise kratom or its derivatives. Thus, it’s illegal to use, purchase, or sell kratom there. Countries that are a part of the ASEAN are:

  • Brunei
  • Cambodia
  • Indonesia
  • Laos
  • Malaysia
  • Myanmar
  • Philippines
  • Singapore
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam

Yet, you’ll see that some of the states on this list, as an instance, Indonesia and Malaysia, are where kratom is presently grown and produced.

Despite the costume regulation, in many of these locations kratom legality remains a gray area. It is neither legal or illegal, with no guidelines regulating it inside the nation. Or, it’s illegal and intensely punishable, nevertheless permitted to be grown, harvested, and exported (without using it, of course).

This makes it dangerous to buy kratom directly from these nations. No laws or regulations means that there’s not any guarantee that their kratom is safe, lab-tested, and contaminant-free. We highly advise anyone against buying directly from Asian countries and rather choose US-based vendors who examine kratom in US-based labs to make sure it is contaminant and adulterant free. Read more here.


Along with that, Thailand legalized kratom for medicinal usage in December 2018. Regardless, it remains not completely”lawful” as Thai police keep repeatedly seizing kratom possession. Moreover, in August 2019, the Thai Prime Minister critically referred to kratom beginning it may be legalized if proven useful.

If you are unclear about the status of kratom in one of these states, it’s best not to place kratom in your luggage. Southeast Asian countries normally have strict drug legislation and heavy punishment for breaking them in case you get caught.

Korea, Japan, China, and India

South Korea additionally prohibits using kratom. You risk fines or jail time if you choose to import or export it.

Kratom is prohibited in Japan.

Its status is uncertain in China and there are no reliable sources to describe that. But, according to our sources various sellers on Taobao, the Chinese equivalent of Amazon, were shut down following listing is available. Additionally, considering China’s coverage on opioids (which are illegal), we wouldn’t risk using or importing kratom to China.

In India kratom is presently legal, even though be careful purchasing it there. There’s a shrub of the Mitragyna household that grows in India. While it’s similar properties that they aren’t the same as those of kratom. Indian vendors label it as Indian Kratom which is much cheaper. Yet, users have complained about it not being nearly as effective and inducing nausea.

Kratom Legality: South America

The only official reports about kratom legality can be found in Brazil in which kratom is legal.

Is kratom legal in other places around South America?

At this time, there’s absolutely no reliable information that can be found in other South American countries. But, users have reported with no problems traveling into and around South America with kratom.

They do, however, advise against traveling back into the USA from countries such as Colombia. They mention that border officials may confuse kratom for coca leaves and can cause difficulties.

Traveling with Kratom

If you plan to travel with kratom, make sure to understand the latest information on the laws of kratom in your destination. Is kratom legal there? Then most likely you will be OK.

In most locations around the world, kratom is now legal. However, there are nations where you may face a fine or other punishment if you act against the law.

Keep in mind that there are places that are still unfamiliar with kratom. As a result, they might have no rules or regulations about it whatsoever.

Meanwhile, other nations have kratom legality from the cloudy, grey location.

If that is the situation and you can’t find a certain answer to whether you can input the particular nation with kratom, then it may be safer to leave your kratom in your home. Doing so will make sure that you don’t get into any legal problems.

It is going to also prevent the standing of kratom from being tarnished even further. Any negative episode anywhere in the world can be employed by the national agencies as a motive behind the kratom ban.

Do you have any experience with kratom in the countries that we have and have not mentioned? Is kratom legal there? Any other comments on kratom legality in various corners of the globe? Don’t hesitate to share them with us.

We do our very best to make sure that we have the most up-to-date and most accurate details on the site. But, we wrote this article in September 2018, and the information included in it may change over time.

A Comprehensive Guide on How to Use Kratom

Throughout the last several years, kratom is now known as a controversial substance from the U.S. and across a number of other countries. There are tons of people who swear by its own benefits, particularly in regard to managing symptoms of opioid withdrawal. At the same time, however, there are many others who have concerns about its safety and efficacy.

If you’re not sure where you reside on kratom, or when you want to learn more until you start using it, then keep reading. Explained below are useful tips on kratom’s advantages, in addition to how to utilize kratom in a safe way that helps you see superior results.

Where to Buy Kratom Online: The Ultimate Guide | ScienceFlora

What Is Kratom?

Kratom trees (also referred to as Mitragyna speciosa) are native to Southeast Asia (specifically, countries like Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand). The leaves of these trees are famous for serving a broad range of medicinal purposes and having arousing and/or sedating effects.

Kratom leaves are often dried and functioned in tea form. They can also be powdered and placed in capsules for simple ingestion.

These leaves contain a variety of active plant substances. The strongest ones, however, are mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine. These two compounds act upon certain receptors in the brain and are responsible for the stimulating and pain-relieving consequences for which atom is best known.

Most Popular Kratom Strains

Kratom comes in several different strains, each of which has its own benefits and characteristics. The following are a few of the most popular kratom strains sold on the marketplace today:

  • Bali Kratom: This breed is also best known for supplying an energy boost while also relieving pain
  • Maeng Da Kratom: Another energizing strain known for its pain-relieving properties
  • Red Vein Kali: This is a strain known for its relaxing, pain-relieving, and sedative effects
  • Red Indo: Another pain-relieving strain that also has sedative properties
  • White Vein Kali: Much more energizing strain than Red Vein Kali that has pain-relieving effects
  • Super Green Malaysia: A unique breed that’s pain-relieving properties, similar to a red strain, but additionally has elicited and euphoric properties, similar to a white breed

There are loads of other breeds of kratom out there that you may select from. However, these are a few of the most well-known strains to contemplate when you start shopping around.

Benefits of Kratom

There are lots of reasons why folks create kratom a regular part of their nutritional supplement routine. Here are some of the greatest health and wellness benefits it has to offer:

  • Increased energy in small dosages (without causing jitters or stress)
  • Potent pain relief, due to it becoming a partial opioid agonist (meaning that it binds to the opioid receptors to alleviate pain minus the same harmful effects of traditional opioid medications )
  • Increased mood, especially for those struggling with depression or nervousness
  • Reduces symptoms of opioid withdrawal
  • Enhances cognition and attention
  • Enhances sleep quantity and quality by promoting relaxation and relieving pain before bed
  • Anti-convulsive properties, making it a good option for Those Who Have certain seizure disorders

As you can see, there are lots of reasons why somebody may want to integrate kratom into their daily life.

If you struggle with chronic pain, insomnia, depression, dependency, or some of the other conditions mentioned above and want to find relief with a more organic substance, Kratom may be a useful solution. It doesn’t come with as many side effects of traditional drugs, and it’s also not as habit-forming for most people.

How to Use Kratom

Are you interested in experiencing the advantages kratom has to offer? Are you unsure of how to utilize it in order to make certain you experience these benefits?

Here are some tips to keep in mind which will help you reap the benefits of kratom without experiencing a Great Deal of unwanted effects:

Choose Your Kratom Strain

One of the first things to think about when you’re getting prepared to use kratom for the first time is that the strain of kratom that you would like to use. To select the right breed, you want to consider the effects that you want to experience.

For instance, if you would like to use kratom to increase your energy, then it wouldn’t be a fantastic idea to utilize a strain such as Red Vein Kali that is known to have sedative properties. Alternatively, you’d be much better off using a strain like Bali Kratom that has effects that are energizing.

If you’re not sure which kratom breed will work best for you, start with taking a look at labels or descriptions of different breeds when shopping online. This can allow you to get an idea about what each strain does and can make it easier for you to restrict your options.

Choose Your Kratom Form

In addition to the breed of kratom that you want to test, you should consider the way by which you would like to consume it. Would you wish to consume it in tea form, for instance, or would you rather purchase a powder that you could add to food or beverages to mask the flavor?

There are many different ways that you can choose kratom, which means you shouldn’t have too much trouble locating an alternative that is suitable for you. When shopping in a store or on the internet, pay attention to the kinds of kratom which are sold there.

Consider your preferences, too. By way of example, if you do not really enjoy drinking tea, purchasing kratom tea might not be the most appropriate choice. You may be better off taking kratom capsules or using kratom powder. Do not get so caught up about the”best” way to choose it that you forget to factor in what works best for youpersonally.

Start with a Little Dose

Generally, when you ingest kratom for the first time, it is best, to begin with, a little dose. This will help you to experience its benefits without needing to worry about possible side effects (grogginess, nausea, etc.).

Most dosage guides make the following recommendations to help you determine how much kratom to choose (based on the intensity of its effects):

  • Mild dose: 3-5 g
  • Moderate dose: 4-10 grams
  • Powerful dose: 8-15 grams
  • Quite a powerful dose: 12-25 grams

Remember, too, that it is fine to start with less than what’s regarded as a moderate dose. If you are the type of person who tends to be somewhat sensitive to herbs and nutritional supplements, beginning with just a couple of grams might be sufficient. You may always add more if you don’t feel any consequences, but you can not take away in the event that you consume too much in the beginning.

Measure Your Results

Most people can tell pretty quickly if kratom is an effective supplement for them. It takes effect within a couple of hours of consumption, therefore it doesn’t take long to establish whether the dose and strain you took were a good fit.

That having been said, it may still be beneficial to measure your results and be aware of how you are feeling after using kratom. Tracking how you feel and how kratom influenced your symptoms may give you more data to use. Additionally, it may make it much easier for you to decide if kratom is something that you need to continue using long-term.

Don’t Overuse It

One reason people are cautious of kratom is that they have concerns about it being habit-forming. As it is a partial opioid agonist, it’s true that kratom has got the potential to be habit-forming. The risk is much lower than the risk related to other drugs, however.

If you’re concerned about establishing a tolerance to kratom or becoming overly dependent on it, do your best not to overuse it. If you only eat it a couple times per week, you’ll be less inclined to become tolerant to it. You will also continue to experience its advantages and find more sustained relief from the symptoms.

Buy High-Quality Kratom

Finally, be sure to buy high-quality kratom from a reputable seller. Kratom is legal in the USA, but there’s not a great deal of regulation around its production or sale. As a result, there are loads of questionable folks around who are promoting questionable products to attempt to make a quick buck.

To avoid purchasing a subpar kratom merchandise, look for a seller that has positive reviews from past clients. Look into the quality of their goods and discover about their return policy, also. Should they have a good return policy, that’s a good indication that they stand behind what they sell and are convinced that it will be beneficial to you personally.

Start Taking Kratom Today

Now that you know more about how to use kratom properly, are you really interested in giving it a go? Keep the information summarized above in your mind, particularly when it comes to choosing the appropriate kratom breed and kratom dosage. Remember these tips and you’ll be more likely to experience relief from your symptoms and have a favorable experience.

If you want to use a high-quality kratom product, make sure to see our online shop today. We provide a wide selection of diatom breeds and sorts, so it’ll be easy for you to find an alternative that fits your needs and preferences.

What’s the Ideal Kratom for Me? Various Types of Kratom and Their Uses

What in case you bought the right product but for the wrong person?

Kratom provides a number of distinct benefits. But, there are lots of different types of atom that are more acceptable for many distinct types of people.

How can you find which atom is perfect for you? Continue reading to find our complete guide!

White Vein Kratom

When there are many different variants (more on those later), kratom has three key breeds. And these different strains can have quite different effects on your body. The first of them is white vein kratom.

White vein atom gets its title for the way it is harvested. This harvest occurs so early that the veins of this atom tree continue to be white.

One thing you should know about white vein kratom is that it is best used by seasoned kratom users. That is because it is among the most effective breeds available. And also you can literally taste the gap since this powerful strain has a special flavor among types of kratom.

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Uses for White Vein Kratom

White vein kratom has quite potent effects. However, what are those effects, and what would be the principal applications of this strain?

The main effect of this kratom strain is moderate stimulation. As a result of this, some users rely on this kratom how others rely on coffee: to keep them awake and alert.

It can serve as a great energy boost for you, particularly if you’re experiencing the dreaded drop in energy at the center of the afternoon. And kratom can help you be more attentive, which can be great once you will need to focus on a particular endeavor.

Red Vein Kratom

When there was a kratom popularity competition, red vein kratom will be winning. It is a wildly popular breed, but what’s the cause of that popularity?

This atom is processed in distinctive techniques require either sunlight or UV light while the item is drying. And this process creates one of the mildest kinds of kratom.

In reality, the potency with this kratom strain is quite mellow compared to white vein kratom. How mellow are people talking? Unlike other breeds of kratom, red vein kratom is not typically classified as a stimulant.

This strain really has the opposite effect. It is, in actuality, a sedative!

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Uses for Red Vein Kratom

Red strand kratom is essentially the reverse of white strand kratom. Instead of providing additional energy and awareness such as white vein kratom does, red vein kratom helps you to calm down.

The vein has a sedative effect, although the potency stays very mild. In other words, it won’t let you sleep…but it will allow you to calm down enough to get some rest.

Given how many people suffer from anxiety from daily, it’s easy to see why this is the most popular breed of kratom. And while the jury is still out on their claims, many reddish strand kratom fans swear it provides a form of pure pain relief.

Green Vein Kratom

Red and white strand kratom are basically the polar opposites when it comes to strength and user experience. However, what if you need something more in the middle? If so, you need a green strand kratom.

Green strand kratom is only harvested after the plant has had time to grow. This helps give it the green coloring it is famed for.

What kind of potency does it have? Broadly speaking, green strand kratom is milder than white vein kratom. Unlike red vein kratom, though, green vein kratom is still regarded as a stimulant.

If you find white strand kratom and red vein kroratoro be overly intense, you’ll discover green strand kratom to be an excellent balance between the two.

Green Vein Thai vs Red Vein Thai – What is the Difference? | Kratomystic

Uses for Green Vein Kratom

What do we rely on green strand kratom for? This particular breed has two principal uses.

The first use is to give energy. This is a stimulant that provides an energy boost in smaller doses than white vein kratom. This makes it a good choice if you want a little energy but find the white vein kratom experience too extreme.

The other use is improved mental clarity. If you want an energy boost while still having the ability to concentrate on a difficult endeavor, green vein kratom is the superior option.

Other Kinds of Kratom

What we have covered thus far reflects the three primary strains of kratom. But, there are other types of kratom that essentially serve as variations of these three strains.

For instance, Maeng Da kratom is similar to a combination of white kratom and red kratom. It provides the energy boost and mental clarity that green vein kratoms known for, though some users favor the taste and texture of Maeng Da

Bentuangie kratoms such as red strand kratom that was fermented while it was being dried. It provides the sedative effect that red vein kratom is famous for while providing much better pain relief to customers.

In the end, there’s yellow vein kratom. Unlike the other types of kratomamed for colours, this doesn’t refer to a particular strain. Rather, this refers to kran atomhat was produced by blending white, red, and green strand kratomn distinct combinations.

Finding the Perfect Strain

This brings us back to the initial query. How can you discover the type of kratom that is excellent for your needs? The only real response is”trial and error”

For instance, should you need help calming down, then you’re going to want to check out reddish vein kratom. But if this doesn’t have the desired result (such as helping you sleep), you may want to try out Bentuangie kratom.

As you experiment, it is important that you locate a reliable kratom vendor. To get the most out of your merchandise, you need to discover a trustworthy vendor that could reliably store kratom before sending it directly to your door.

Your Next Move

Now you know about the different kinds of kratom. But do you know who’s all the breeds and varieties you will ever want?

We specialize in all things kratom and can help you find the product that’s ideal for you. To see how we can transform your life, contact us now!

4 Ways ALCAR May Help Memory and Assist Head Trauma

Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR) is an amino acid that occurs naturally within the human body and is normally present in sufficient quantities, but there can be many advantages associated with increasing the levels of this substance via a supplement.  ALCAR is broken down in the blood by plasma esterases to carnitine which is used by the body to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for breakdown.  As a nootropic, Acetyl L-Carnitine is sometimes referred to as ALCAR, and it is typically taken to improve the user’s mental performance. However, the medical field has been interested in ALCAR for a long time due to other attractive potential benefits, ranging from improved glucose distribution for diabetics to the reversal of head trauma damage and depression.

If you are considering adding ALCAR to your regular nootropic routine, it is a good idea to learn extra about the scientific research that supports the many claims manufacturers and retailers make about this particular supplement. Therefore, we have compiled a list of just a few of the many studies and clinical trials that have focused on the health perks of taking Acetyl L-Carnitine.

Acetyl L-CarnitineStudies about the Effectiveness of Using ALCAR for Multiple Medical Issues

1. Assistance with Traumatic Brain Injuries

In 2011, a group of scientists utilized test subjects that had suffered a traumatic brain injury in order to determine if the administration of ALCAR after the fact would have any positive benefits. The results proved that treating this injury within the first 24 hours with Acetyl L-Carnitine reduced the cortical lesion volume and provided neurological improvements. Each of the test subjects received 100 mg of ALCAR four times during the 24-hour time period.

2. Reversing Memory Loss

A research study help in 1999 looked carefully at the possibility of reversing partial or full memory loss in elderly rats by utilizing ALCAR. The test subjects in this study had damage to the nucleic acid, protein, and mitochondria in their brain, and this is similar to what happens to Alzheimer’s patients. Each rat had doses of ALCAR ranging from 0.15 to 0.5 percent, and this helped restore the amount of carnitine in their brain and plasma to the levels that are found in healthy, young rats. Additionally, the test rats exhibited a partial reversal in mitochondrial damage and memory loss. In other words, ALCAR may help prevent your brain from becoming damaged in this way in the first place, and this may help boost your cognitive performance.

3. Periphal Neuropathy

Meta-analyses from 2015 and 2017 both conclude that the current evidence suggests ALCAR reduces pain from peripheral neuropathy with few adverse effects.  The 2017 review also suggested ALCAR improved electromyographic parameters in diabetes patients.  Both studies called for more randomized controlled trials to study the potential for reduction of nerve pain.

4. Hope for Diabetics

A study conducted in 2000 into the role between ALCAR and glucose disposal indicated that this supplement is able to assist patients who have Type 2 Diabetes. In a nutshell, the patients who participated in the study group experienced positive benefits from taking any amount of ALCAR, but 5 mg per pound for each person’s individual body weight was the standard dosage. This guided to a significant improvement in the glucose metabolism for every participant, and the scientists involved theorized that this could eventually be used to reverse the glycogen synthase inhibition of people with diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes

5. Minimizing Alcohol Induced Brain Damage

Drinking on a routine basis can cause a long list of health problems, including a significant reduction in cognitive functionality due to oxidative damage.  In 2010, research was published that conclusively links ALCAR to a reduction in neuronal degeneration, neuro-inflammation and impaired neurotransmission. During the testing period, scientists once again proved that ALCAR was beneficial for preventing or reversing mitochondrial damage, particularly in the brain. The test subjects that took Acetyl L-Carnitine also had restored synaptic neurotransmission and significantly reduced amounts of neuronal loss and oxidative damage when compared to the control subjects. This means that ALCAR acts as a neuroprotective agent that can help prevent not only the brain damage that is caused by alcohol but also the development of a long list of neurological disorders.

6. Depression Treatment

One 2014 review assessed the use of ALCAR in fourteen clinical trials for various conditions with depressive symptoms; the trials were small (ranging from 20 to 193 subjects) and their design was so different that results could not be generalized; most studies showed positive results and a lack of adverse effects due to the neuroplasticity of ALCAR. The mechanism of action by which ALCAR could treat depression is not known, but the same study showed some promise for treatment of fibromyalgia.  A meta-analysis from 2014 concluded that ALCAR could only be recommended for the treatment of persistent depressive disorder if publication bias was deemed improbable.

Using ALCAR as a Nootropic Supplement

With all of these medical and cognitive benefits, it is no wonder that so many people choose to take an Acetyl L-Carnitine supplement one or two times daily. Although each user’s exact dosage needs may vary, the typical person takes between 500 and 1,500 mg of ALCAR per day. A good starting point for nootropic benefits is 1,000 mg, but be sure to adjust this as needed based on the supplements in your stack.  It is also advisable to keep track of any new side effects that may develop after usage starts.

Though ALCAR is generally well tolerated and considered safe for usage, individuals with low or borderline-low thyroid levels should avoid Carnitine because it might impair the action of thyroid hormone.  Those with any physical condition involving reduced liver or kidney function should only consider the usage of ALCAR or other supplements under the direct supervision of a physician.

Generally as a nootropic, ALCAR is not used alone. Most people stack it with a choline supplement and sometimes include racetam supplements in a stack. ALCAR has significant health benefits and should be considered for  use in everyone’s stack. The main advantages are its aid in helping to reduce oxidative stresses within the brain. It is also believed to help with acetylcholine synthesis and is considered of great value to a cholinergic stack.

How Safe Is the Use of Ampakines Like Sunifiram and Unifiram?

Sunifiram is a popular and fairly new nootropic that belongs to the “ampakines” family. While most reports have led to consistent and positive results, many ampakines haven’t still been thoroughly studied.

Some clinical tests in animals have been done to study the effects of sunifiram. These tests have revealed positive effects associated with this nootropic’s use. However, there is a need of more thorough studies to determine its safety. Based on the limited studies, sunifiram seems to be well tolerated, but its long-term profile isn’t known yet.

Unlike most racetams that work mainly as cholinergic compounds, substances like sunifiram and unifiram work to attach themselves while stimulating the glutamate and AMPA receptors.

What Causes Glutamate Excitotoxicity?

Glutamate excitotoxicity results from an excess of glutamate in the body cells. As glutamate builds up in the cell, calcium ions are released. This in turn leads to the activation of enzymes, thereby damaging the cell.

Excitoxicity may result from a number of different factors. In fact, glutamate may act as an excitotoxin in your body. Glutamic acid is associated with glutamate and is commonly present as monosodium glutamate (MSG). MSG is a hazardous food additive used for improving taste and inducing a feeling of “fullness”, which becomes excitotoxic when taken in high doses.

Some studies have also shown that excitoxicity can be a consequence of brain damage. On the contrary, glutamate agonists are also associated with excitotoxicity. Agonists such as kainic acid and NDMA become excitotoxic when taken in high doses. Other factors like alcohol withdrawal can also cause excitotoxicity. This happens when the NMDA receptors get excessively agonized during the process.

Ampakines And Excitotoxicity

Most ampakines aren’t similar to glutamate agonists in terms of their method of action. Glutamate agonists tend to mimic glutamate’s properties for receptor-activation, which is what leads to excitoxicity. On the other contrary, most ampakines like sunifiram and unifiram tend to slow down this receptor activation. By slowing down the receptor currents, ampakines slow down the entire mechanism of AMPA receptor activation. In doing so, ampakines achieve the goal of improving memory as well as cognitive functioning.

It is important to note that the effects of these nootropics vary from study to study and ampakine to ampakine. This simply means that every ampakine has its own unique method of action. Some ampakines may show predominance in different regions of the brain, which is why, there’s a crucial need of thorough studies on the safety of each ampakine.

Some studies have shown that ampakines like sunifiram may play an active role in preventing against the excitotoxicity induced by these substances themselves. Although it has been observed that the AMPA receptor’s intense activation causes this excitoxicity, activation results in the transduction of defensive protein kinases as well. Some studies have revealed that the activation of certain protein kinases may help in offering protection against neurotoxicity. This means, if certain ampakines are able to affect the kinases pathways, they may actually serve as neuroprotective substances.

So, What Can Be Concluded?

Based on past studies, it can be concluded that ampakines like sunifiram and unifiram are safe to use. But, it’s equally important to realize that these substances carry some risks. Science may help in getting a better understanding of glutamatergic transmission, which is why, it is best to use these nootropics with care while making sure that you don’t go beyond the recommended dosage.

Lastly, be cautious while using ampakines in combination with other substances. Just because a new nootropic seems to be safe by itself, doesn’t mean it will not become toxic when used in combinations. In fact, certain ampakines may enhance their excitotoxicity when combined with other substances.