Category: Herbal/Natural

A Listing of Natural Nootropic Supplements

There are several groups of nootropics, including natural nootropic supplements.  Natural nootropic supplements have been around for a long time, but only recently have they started being treated as nootropics in the sense of providing a boost to cognitive abilities.  The purpose of this list is to call out the natural nootropics in the market.

1. Adaptogen List

Adaptogens are herbs that may help with the body’s resistance to stress, often by helping to reduce cortisol. They may also offer neurotransmitter support and promote enhancements in cognitive functioning and energy levels. Adaptogens are herbs and though many have had research via NIH, most have not been evaluated by the FDA for treating disease. As such some research evidence may be inconclusive.

  • Rhodiola Rosea
  • Bacopa Monnieri
  • Panax Ginsing
  • Siberian Ginsing
  • Ashwagandha
  • Holy Basil

2. Dopaminergics

Dopaminergic nootropics are any substance related to dopamine in order to increase cognitive function. Some dopaminergic drugs are excluded from this list because they are prescription stimulants or dangerous illicit drugs. Even though these stimulant substances can enhance alertness and focus, they are not considered nootropic due to their safety issues.

MAO-B Inhibitors

  • Phenylethylamine (PEA)
  • Hordenine
  • Catechin
  • Epicatechin (Reversible)

Dopamine Precursors

  • L-Theanine
  • Mucuna Pruriens (L-DOPA)
  • Phenylalanine
  • L-Tyrosine

3. Cholinergics

Cholinergics are any type of nootropic involving acetylcholine creation, transmition or the modulation of its receptors.

Choline/Acetylcholine Affecting Supplements

  • Choline Bitatrate
  • Choline Citrate
  • Phosphatidylcholine
  • Alpha GPC (GPC Choline)
  • Citicoline (CDP Choline)
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine
  • Centrophenoxine

AChe Inihibtors

  • Huperzine A
  • Galantamine (Snowdrop)

4. Other Semi-Natural Nootropic Supplements

This list of nootropic encompasses all nootropics which are derived from some natural compound or substance. These also include analouges or substances created from a natural structure. The brackets represent what natural compound the nootropic was derivered from.

  • Centrophenoxine (DMAE)
  • Idebenone (CoQ10)
  • Sulbutiamine (B1)
  • Pyritinol (B6)
  • Agmatine Sulfate (l-arginine)

5. Other Natural Nootropic Supplements

This list of natural nootropic supplements includes a large scope of natural compounds which includes herbal products as well as compounds that are derived from herbal or natural substances. Some of the natural products are also listed in the categories above.

Herbal Nootropics

  • Bacopa Monnieri
  • Rhodiola Rosea
  • Huperzine A
  • Hordenine
  • Vinpocetine
  • Gotu Kola
  • L-Theanine
  • Ginseng
  • Ashwagandha
  • Lion’s Mane Mushroom
  • Ginko Biloba
  • Lemon Balm Extract

Brain Nutrients

  • Omega 3-6-9
  • B-Vitamins
  • Choline
  • DMAE
  • Inositol
  • Creatine
  • Uridine
  • Co Enzyme 10
  • SAM-e
  • L-Carnitine

Why You Should Have Adaptogens in Your Stack

Everyone is looking to get the best out of their nootropic stacks. Unfortunately, there is a huge pitfall within every person’s journey to attain high mental acuity. This pitfall is known as stress and it is unavoidable. Fortunately there are supplemental aids known as adaptogens which we can enforce to help combat internal stress.

An advanced nootropic stack should have adaptogens involved to help combat stress. Even through stress may be from external factors, it affects us internally by raising a hormone known as cortisol. Cortisol is an enemy most people should combat, especially those whom are looking to increase cognitive function. The hormone may even directly influence the effectiveness of our beloved nootropic racetams.

Before enforcing an adaptogen supplement in our stack we should look at two things first. The things to evaluate are if you are getting adequate sleep and exercise. Unfortunately, it works as a “Catch 22” because often higher cortisol leads to insomnia and lower energy levels. This is where the term “overtired” may come in because you may feel the need to sleep but no physical capability to do so. In this case, it is hard to get more rest and exercise.

effects of stress on the body

So what can a nootropics user do to combat the negative influence of stress and cortisol levels? Adaptogens are the answer and they may influence your cognitive ability even further. Nootropic users almost always have more stress than people not using nootropics. This is simply because, a person looks for nootropics generally to help fight cognitive difficulties involved in jobs and studies.

Three Adaptogens to Add to Your Nootropic Stack

Here at Peak we recommend three adaptogens. There are more, but these are the ones that have proven their weight and the best “bang for your buck”. Do not let yourself be fooled by the fact that they are herbal. Many pharmaceuticals are created from herbal constituents and the chemicals in these adaptogens are no different. They are extremely powerful and may perhaps change your life and boost the whole effectiveness of your nootropic stack.

There are a few worthy things to note before using adaptogen nootropics. First off, don’t expect them to work overnight. Sure, you may experience some benefit from the first dosage but, adaptogens like most nootropics have cumulative effects which means they should be used for a week to two weeks to see full results. Like nootropics, they may also be very subtle at first and become more effective with time. Another thing to take note of is that these adaptogens are not without side effects so be careful and don’t overdo them.


Ashwagandha is an adoptogen and powerful nootropic. It contains powerful alkaloids that have been used for centuries in herbal medicine. Ashwagandha has mood boosting benefits and may combat anxiety and depression. Some people also claim that Ashwaganha can help with sleep. This fact likely pertains to cortisol levels as the plant is thought to influence it.

Many nootropics users who have tried Ashwaganha have claimed it has a significant impact on their memory and focus. Not all mechanisms are understood and the nootropic effects may pertain to cortisol levels or other mechanisms. Ashwaganha can be stacked with other adaptogens and is primarily known as an adaptogen for mood-increase and sleep promoting benefits. It should be used in a dosage of 2-6 grams a day for minimum of 2 weeks to see full effects.

Red Korean Ginseng (Panax)

Red Korean Ginseng is a type of Panax Ginseng that is carefully cultivated. If you were to choose a type of Panax Ginseng, Red Korean is best. It is also thought that Red Korean Ginseng affects cortisol levels but this adaptogen is known mostly for its energy promoting benefits. It is known to give a non-jittery type of energy. Combination of Red Korean Ginseng with Ashwaganda is also a highly synergistic combination.

Red Korean Ginseng has a number of health benefits but is known mostly for its effects on energy levels. The increase in energy levels is thought to come from the mind and does not interact with the central nervous system in the same was as stimulants like caffeine. Red Korean Ginseng is usually well tolerated however generally less so than Aswagandha. Most nootropics users recommend a dosage of 500-1500mg.

Rhodiola Rosea

Rhodiolia Rosea is a powerful adaptogen that has been largely marketed and misunderstood. It makes the list of the top three nootropic adaptogens because it is great for focus and motivation. It may also interact with mood and could possibly be dopaminergic/serotonergic. Rhodiolia may also affect cortisol levels and improve sleep quality if used properly. It is also highly synergistic when combined with either of the other two adaptogens.

Most people who take Rhodiolia Rosea experience some benefit. As stated with the other adaptogens, use this one for a minimum of two weeks. One thing to note with Rhodiolia, is that it should be stacked. Because of the possible dopaminergic mechanisms, it could cause tolerance. Most people recommend a dosage of 250-750mg used for two weeks on/one week off.

Rhodiola rosea – a natural adaptogen and nootropic

Rhodiola rosea, commonly known as rose root, golden root, or Aaron’s rod, is a natural adaptogen and nootropic substance mainly used to boost the mental concentration, improve the mood, alleviate stress, and reduce fatigue. This plant could usually be found in high mountain areas where regions are cold, including the mountains of Central Asia, the Arctic, eastern part of North America, from Baffin Island in Canada all the way to the mountains of North Carolina in the USA. The supplements made from this herb are mostly known for its healing properties, that is the reason why many people choose Rhodiola rosea for their daily intake.

By being an adaptogen herb, Rhodiola rosea preserves the body and its function by healing the cells especially the neurons, by eliminating depression and stress, which improves mood. Local people from Scandinavia and Siberia have been using this herb in order to cope with the cold and ruthless weather conditions. The traditional Chinese medicine recognizes this plant as a part of their common diet, especially in their salads. Scientific studies have shown that Rhodiola rosea consists of more than 140 chemical substances, including Rosavin, organic acids, Phenolic compounds, Alkaloids and Flavonoids. Along with other adaptogens and nootropic herbs, Rhodiola rosea is a part of a herbal nootropic combination or stack, having the same potential or as an alternative to the much widely used Adderall.

Rhodiola rosea

Effects of Rhodiola rosea

Probably the most notable and important mechanism of action for this herb is the stimulation of the enzyme class called AMPK. Higher concentrations for this enzyme class builds up a number of Mitochondria within the cells. As it is known, Mitochondria represents as the energy factories of our cells, delivering the energy needed for metabolic reactions and processes in our body. The more Mitochondria we have, the more energy in our cells, enabling full efficiency under any given circumstances. As the number of Mitochondria grows in our cells, the fat burns much quicker, including the Glucose uptake in the muscle cells and in the brain. Various metabolic reactions need energy from Glucose, therefore delivering such substances to all parts of our body is vital.

One of the numerous compounds of Rhodiola rosea is Salidroside, responsible for inducing muscle cells for Glucose uptake. By imitating the effects of Insulin, Salidroside additionally boosts Insulin and increases the enzyme class AMPK, creating more energy for the cell functions. Along with the mentioned mechanisms of action, this natural nootropic adaptogen has several mechanisms of the usual nootropic benefits. It increases Dopamine and Serotonin levels in the brain tissues, additionally preventing the tissues’ breakdown. The extract of this herb is an MAO inhibitor, slowing down the metabolism of the neurotransmitters Dopamine and Serotonin. On the other hand, it influences one of the Opiod peptides, called Beta-endorphin, which leads to the feeling of well-being and pleasure.

Benefits of Rhodiola rosea

One of the nootropic effects which puts Rhodiola rosea as a highly adaptogen herb is its anti-fatigue effect, which increases overall mental performance. It boosts focus and concentration, in both the healthy and those who have a certain type of cognitive decline. As mentioned, this plant helps in the treatment of mild to slightly moderate depression states, without the bad side effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the extract form’s positive effect on the general skin condition, especially on fading and sensitive skin.

Some animal studies have suggested that the mechanism of action linked to Norepinephrine release is essential for Rhodiola rosea’s mental benefits. This neurotransmitter, responsible for alertness and attention, intensifies the body’s energy, focus, and motivation, benefiting the complete nootropic effect. Higher levels combat the aging effects as well, preventing senile Dementia.

Because it restores the human body’s balance, this herb is considered to be an adaptogen plant. It is completely safe for consumption, which is shown in traditional Chinese medicine. It normalizes the body with numerous physiological benefits and effects which rejuvenate the individual’s health. Adaptogenic efficiency minimizes harmful effects of fatigue and stress, and restores the functions of the immune system, including the overall cellular health. It fights stress in the manner of lowering the cell oxidative processes, which could lead to a significant number of conditions and illnesses, including cancer. In addition, this adaptogen is frequently used in depression and anxiety treatments. By affecting the levels of neurotransmitters such as Dopamine and Serotonin, Rhodiola rosea boosts the positive mood of an individual.

Recommended dosage for Rhodiola rosea

This adaptogen is considered to be safe, as one of the accepted supplements in both traditional and modern medicine. Yet, certain recommended doses should be respected in order to avoid the side effects and to achieve the maximal cognitive effects needed by individuals on nootropic therapy. The typical recommended daily dosage is somewhere between 100 and 600 mg. Special caution is needed when using this supplement, because it is considered to be a mild stimulant. The consumer should start with a lesser dose and then advance gradually. This will adapt the body to a new supplement and avoid the negative tolerance effect. If we take into consideration that each body is unique, then it is advisable to start with the minimal recommended dosage and increase slowly the dosage, which primarily benefits the body the most.

Rhodiola rosea side effects

This adaptogen nootropic is considered to be mainly safe, yet some side effects are possible, so each user should be cautious when using this supplement. The side effects are mild and could be manifested as agitation, nausea, anxiety, restlessness, hypersalivation, and insomnia. All of these side effects are common from plants and substances that produce stimulatory effects. Most of these side effects were only experienced in cases where a higher dosage was taken. Therefore, a consultation with a medical professional is a must before an individual decides to start a nootropic treatment with this natural adaptogen.

Bacopa – A Herbal Gem of Ayurvedic Medicine

Nature has given its best when it comes to natural medicine and dietary products. As a natural nootropic remedy, Bacopa represents a herbal nootropic gem of Ayurvedic medicine, an Indian alternative medicine. Bacopa monnieri, or Bacopa, is recommended traditionally for epilepsy, asthma and memory enhancement. The medical classification of this herb puts it in the group of adaptogens, which means that it helps the body to overcome the feeling of stress, protecting the body from illnesses. Bacosides, a group of chemical compounds, are responsible for Bacopa’s activity and probably the most studied substance within this plant is bacoside A.

In a nootropic world, Bacopa is mostly recommended as a reducer of anxiety and memory enhancer. Various studies, both on animal and human models, have shown that this herb prevents amnesia induced by drugs, normalizes neurotransmitter levels in a body, increases concentrations of antioxidants (especially catalase, SOD, glutathione), enhances memory, reduces anxiety and increases working capacity.

Bacopa recommended dosage

It is recommended to take this plant with a meal, because it is fat soluble and this combination benefits absorption. A recommended dosage is 150 mg of bacosides which should be taken two times per day. For other dosage options, it is advisable to consult a medical professional before starting a nootropic treatment with this herb.

Mechanism of action

1. Antioxidant activity

Several studies have stated that Bacopa supports brain antioxidant activity and rises the concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione, among others. Research performed on rodents has shown that Bacopa protects rodent brains from neurotoxicity induced by both mercury and aluminium, reducing the chances of oxidative stress. This adaptogen plant is able to mitigate negative effects made by oxidative stress and protect neurons from damaging. This means that Bacopa prevents induced neurodegeneration produced by free radicals which promote oxidative stress.

2. Serotonin levels

Studies have also shown that Bacopa benefits serotonin levels by increasing both serotonin transporter and tryptophan hydroxylase levels, without significant acetylcholine level change. The effect on serotonin levels is probably a cause for anxiety reduction which this nootropic plant promotes. A study performed on rodents which included morphine and Bacopa has shown that this herb prevents an increased serotonin and dopamine turnover associated with present morphine.

3. Dopamine levels

As shown above, Bacopa benefits dopamine levels when taken with morphine. Another study which included rats with Parkinson’s disease, has shown that bacopa offsets dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This indicates that Bacopa could be a potential remedy for Parkinson’s disease in human patients.bacopa chemical structure

Bacopa benefits

1. Memory enhancement

This herbal remedy is a cognitive enhancer in Ayurvedic medicine and contemporary research completely supports traditional view. The studies have shown that Bacopa alleviates amnesia induced by scopolamine, protecting an individual against memory impairment. It substantially benefits those who are over 55, improving recall and fighting against depression with an improvement in memory retention.

The most interesting study linked to Bacopa has shown that it improves learning verbal rate, memory consolidation and speed of information processing. Another study on children has show that Bacopa is able to decrease reaction and performance time, lowering error rate in performance tasks. The same study stated that Bacopa increases memorized digit span and improves test scores in tests such a the bender-gestalt. This test is designed as a visual motor test where individuals draw pictures on paper after seeing a certain series of images.


2. Reduction of anxiety

Bacopa is able to reduce the feeling of anxiety, significantly improving the behavior such as different social interactions, reducing mental fatigue and improving memory span. When taken, Bacopa doesn’t need to be administered in higher dosage to achieve the effect, yet the maximal benefits could be seen after 4 weeks of treatment. In the study which involved elderly people, daily Bacopa dosages of 300 mg reduced anxiety, following the supplementation of 12 weeks. A similar study has shown similar effects, where anxiety was successfully reduced after a 12 week supplementation.

Side effects and safety measures for Bacopa

Bacopa has few side effects which, when taken in recommended dosages, are minimalized and rarely occasional. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a medical professional before the utilization, informing a physician or a pharmacist when these side effects occur so that certain measures could be taken. The most frequent side effect is a gastrointestinal distress, manifested as cramping, increased stool frequency or nausea. The gastrointestinal symptoms could easily be avoided if the recommended dosage is divided into 2-3 times per day, including combination with food.

An animal study has shown a potential elevation in thyroid hormones with no present studies on humans which could confirm this. Another study which is only confirmed among animals talks about effect on fertility, where Bacopa reduced spermatogenesis without a certain impact on libido or hormone levels.

5 Herbal Nootropics for You to Love

For those not wanting to resort to nootropic chemicals, drugs or dietary supplements, there are some natural alternatives that are still very powerful. This list will help bring you up to speed on just exactly what types of herbal nootropics there are and just how they may work with you.

Huperzine A

Huperzine A is a very powerful nootropic that has been used for centuries to help improve cognitive performance. This type of Chinese club moss has been used in many nootropic formulations like Alpha Brain as a primary active ingredient. It works well on its own but this natural nootropic also is synergetic with other compounds like the racetams (piracetam, aniracetam, etc…).

Huperzine A works as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme in the brain that is essential for living because it is necessary in muscle coordination and other complex tasks relating to muscle neurology. On the other hand, acetylcholinesterase is actually negative to cognition because it depletes levels of acetylcholine. Huperzine A terminates extra acetylcholinesterase to help improve cognition and memory. It has been known to do this safely when used in recommended dosages.

Snowdrop (Galantamine)

Snowdrop is a type of flowering herb which contains the natural nootropic ingredient, galantamine. Galantamine is the active ingredient isolated from the plant and commonly prescribed for Alzheimer’s disease. Galantamine can also be obtained over the counter from certain retailers.

One can get a lot of natural galantamine from snowdrop and this can greatly help with cognition. Galantamine and huperzine A both work in a similar way by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. This makes them both very powerful and sought after herbal nootropics which are often used in stacks with other cognitive enhancers.


Vinpocetine is another powerful herbal nootropic which is derived from the periwinkle plant. It is also a common additive in many brain enhancing formulations. This herbal product does not work as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor like huperzine A or snowdrop.

One of the primary methods of action of vinpocetine is thought to be its vasodilation effects. It is thought to influence blood flow and energy metabolism within the brain.

Vinpocetine is also thought to act as a PDE type 1 inhibitor that is one of the only known in this class. These PDE inhibiting activities help to increase cGMP within the brain. Increasing cGMP may help to increase long term potentiation (LTP) which may have a positive impact on overall cognitive function (namely memory). Aside from this, the PDE inhibiting activities if vinpocetine is also thought to relax cerebral muscle tissue which may also have further positive nootropic benefits.

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa monnieri is another powerful nootropic plant which is also commonly referred to as brahmi. It is another common ingredient in natural nootropic formulations and it has been used in ancient Indian medicine for centuries as a cognitive enhancer.

Bacopa has many chemical constituants including flavonoids and its’ own unique bacopasaponins. It is not clear exactly what all the roles these constituents play in the cognitive boosting effects of this herb. Regardless, studies have pointed bacopa to be beneficial in improving cognitive function. The herb is also thought to be highly neuroprotective.

Tea Extract (L-Theanine)

Tea extract is an herbal product that has a large list of effective health benefits which includes an improvement in cognitive function. The most interesting in the tea complex is perhaps l-theanine.

L-theanine has long been thought to be a subtle nootropic which may act synergistic with other compounds including caffeine. Studies have shown that l-theanine when used alone, can help to increase areas of cognitive function. This natural nootropic also has an influence on important neurotransmitters like dopamine.

A Review of Pyritinol

Pyritinol (pyridoxine disulfide) represents a semi-natural nootropic substance which is synthesized from vitamin B6, or pyridoxine. First synthesis was performed in the 1960’s and since then, it has been prescribed for various neurological conditions worldwide. In many other countries, including the United States, pyritinol is available as an OTC medicine (over-the-counter), which can be bought without a prescription, functioning as a common cognitive and memory enhancer.

For the last fifty years, numerous studies have shown pyritinol’s effectiveness on the nervous system, representing it as successful and safe general nootropic applied to huge numbers of people. Over the course of many years, media has overinflated the negative aspects of safety of pyritinol. Although this substance has a couple of safety concerns, like any other medical substance, most of these side effects are not unusual and dangerous. It’s semi-natural origin derived from pyridoxine helps in limiting the safety concerns and to ensure any issues are minimal, increasing the effectiveness/risk ratio of this medicine. Even though it has been found half a century ago, the nootropic mechanisms are still completely unknown, with several possible methods which support the benefits of this substance.


Probably the best and thoroughly explained mechanism, or method of action, is high affinity choline uptake which is similar to pramiracetam and sunifiram. A study on the animals has shown that rat brains experienced an increase in high affinity choline uptake, when researchers administered regular doses of pyritinol. This study included both young and old rat brains, where in both cases pyritinol showed a significant increase. The possible pyritinol choline uptake mechanism hasn’t been studied on human brains.

Another interesting and well supported study on rats has stated that pyritinol administration for the period of 2-3 weeks ameliorated acetylcholine levels. A similar, yet different study, has shown that pyritinol metabolites affected the release of acetylcholine, by indirectly acting on this neurotransmitter levels.


The benefits of this nootropic supplement are numerous and over the course of many years, it has been proven on both young and old people, enhancing their cognitive capabilities. Probably the most significant effect could be seen in elderly people, because of the declination in cholinergic activity which develops with age, resulting in different health conditions, such is Alzheimer’s disease. It’s nootropic activity, which declared the substance as OTC medicine, is the most evident which makes it desirable among younger people, especially students.  One small study did find an improvement in reaction time, but not memory.

Pyritinol’s nootropic effects include increased learning, improved memory and problem-solving skills, enhanced sensory perception and a decrease in tiredness. The benefits improve with the higher doses, yet its safety concerns suggest that higher doses shouldn’t be used in this indication. The higher the dosage, the higher the chances that negative side effects could occur, resulting in its toxicity, so it is advised to be moderate when using pyritinol.

It is approved for the symptomatic treatment of chronically impaired brain function in dementia syndromes and for supportive treatment of sequelae of craniocerebral trauma in various European countries, including Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, and Greece.  In France it is also approved for rheumatoid arthritis as a disease modifying drug, on the basis of the results of clinical trials.  In most other countries it is either sold as an over the counter (OTC) drug or has distribution legally limited.


As mentioned, media has belied the story about pyritinol, representing it as unsafe drug. The fact that is is an over-the-counter medicine, which proves the safety, overthrows the false information. This medicine has an astonishing safety record, administered for over a couple of decades by thousands and thousands of people. Even with the presented evidence, pyritinol still has some safety issues, similar to other medicine widely used by the population all over the world. A conversation with a qualified medical professional, such is doctor or pharmacist, is essential before the use of this medicine.

The concerning serious side effects which have been present in couple of cases were connected to immune system response. This case of pancreatitis was present at regular doses which means that immune system has overreacted, bringing the organism to a rare and uncommon inflamation. The other rare case included hepatotoxicity, related to cholestasis, believed to be a side effect of the mentioned nootropic. This case is also related to genetic predisposition present at a smaller percentage of population. With the upcoming methods of genetical biomedicine, these rare cases are going to be discovered early, resulting in the decrease of these rare, yet strange cases.

Common side effects, on the other hand, are not dangerous and life threatening. These include headache, most likely linked to its cholinergic mechanism, then gastrointestinal discomfort, insomnia, nausea. Even rare side effect is a skin problem, such as dermatitis.

It is usually combined with other nootropics, to decrease the side effects and increase the effect available thanks to different nootropic mechanisms of medicine. It works synergistically when applied with similar cholinergic drugs, like choline and acetylcholine supplements and racetams. Another synergetic proposal is the combinasion of pyritinol with sulbutiamine, but there isn’t a direct evidence of their conjoined potential. The substance is not recommended to pregnant women or those who are breasfeeding their newborns. It is important to be introduced to safety warnings, including the consultation with pharmacist or a doctor, before its use.

Yerba Mate – an exquisite alternative to coffee and green tea

How many times have you drunk a liter (or four cups for that matter) of coffee just to stay awake and study for tomorrow’s exam? Probably a couple of times, at least, because every student uses coffee to boost the energy and prepare for a certain exam. The bad side of it comes when you drink lots of coffee and then you experience headaches, arrhythmia and high blood pressure. Therefore, nature has offered many different alternatives to coffee, which potentially has better effects on your concentration, yet lack the serious and concerning side effects present with coffee. An excellent example of such an herb is called Yerba Mate which became more popular recently as a much effective drink than coffee. This great natural nootropic herb, similar to coffee, is also a natural caffeine source, but the caffeine boost is stable and smooth when compared to coffee, which has much frequent crashes and peaks that promote the caffeine side effects.

Yerba Mate is most commonly used as a coffee-like nootropic alternative which increases vigilance and alertness, yet offering a positive stress-free mood. Different reviews state that it helps an individual to achieve mental clarity for a longer period during work or when studying. This plant originates from South America’s subtropical areas such as Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia. The drink made from this plant has been used as a nutritional supplement, similar to coffee, and is still used as a drink in many European cultures. The taste of this herb is similar to the taste of green tea and it is also available in combination with many flavored extracts, to hide the bitter taste of flavonoids which this plant is full of. Yerba Mate consists of various nutrients such as selenium, magnesium, inositol, vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, C, E, fatty acids and a complex of antioxidants, ready to boost your immune system and maintain your health.

Effects of Yerba Mate

Yerba Mate has a couple of known mechanisms and effects in that it works similar to green tea. Its main characteristics are that it acts like a cognitive enhancer and it stimulates the central nervous system, like caffeine. Important ingredients which support this mechanism are antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins, amino acids, and minerals. This herb helps maintains one’s health, including the cognitive functions of the brain.

Another mechanism which is supported by numerous studies is its influence on the energy-related systems which complete the cellular function and metabolism. This results in higher concentrations of ATP, the main source of energy for a cell. It also acts as a vasodilator and helps the blood vessels to dilatate by relaxing the muscles. The dilatation of blood vessels improves the blood flow and the general cardiovascular functions.

Yerba Mate benefits

Yerba Mate Benefits

Probably the most important benefit of Yerba Mate is its antioxidative activity. The main components of this herb are antioxidants and when compared to different varieties of green tea, it contains 90% more antioxidants. The significant boost of the immune system helps the removal of harmful free radicals, preventing them from damaging the brain and body. Because the brain produces a lot of energy thanks to its function, this organ is the most sensitive when it comes to free radicals. Yerba Mate prevents the effects of free radicals and it detoxifies the brain cells as well, preventing many types of cancer in your body and slows the aging process.

It has nutrients such as vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, amino acids and polyphenols that enhance the ability to focus or concentrate. These Yerba Mate nutrients will give the balancing effect. The nutrients will increase the clarity and mental energy without additional side effects that caffeine normally brings. Additionally, this herbal nootropic supplement reduces anxiety, insomnia, and stress for many individuals.

When it comes to physical endurance, Yerba Mate works on this field as well. It helps the metabolism of carbohydrates, which is essential for body energy and the loss of unwanted calories from your body depot. It affects the levels of lactic acid, which benefits the muscles and prevents pain after the workout, speeding up the recovery time.

Recommended dosage of Yerba Mate

When it comes to Yerba Mate and its recommended dosage, there is very limited information regarding its proper daily uptake. However, scientists advise that drinking this herbal preparation should be done in moderation, since taking abnormally high doses may have the potential to lead to the appearance of some types of cancer (at least that is the theory). Even though antioxidants prevent the cancer phenomenon, these chemicals promote oxidative action in the body when administered in higher concentrations, so it is recommended not to go overdrive with the use of this nootropic. It is better to consult your medical professional before you decide to use this natural nootropic for the first time.

The proper dosage depends on one’s personal reasons for taking these supplements, as well as on several factors which should be considered, including how it is supplemented and any other supplements being taken in combination. If you take Yerba Mate as a tea, it is recommended to take only 1-3 cups per day. On the other hand, if you are taking it as a supplement, once per day of 500 mg is the recommended dosage. When taking other polyphenols and caffeine supplements and drinks, it is recommended to lower the dosage of Yerba Mate. Every manufacturer that sells this herbal preparation has the recommended usage on the package, so the following of such instructions is highly recommended.

Yerba Mate side effects

Even though this herbal preparation is much better than coffee when it comes to side effects, it still has some issues which should be avoided when using this herb to prepare drinks. Some rare side effects may include stomach upset, vomiting, nausea, nervousness, insomnia, increased heart rate, headache, ringing in ears, and restlessness. If this supplement is consumed in higher doses, these side effects are more likely to occur, so in this case you should seek an advice from a medical professional.  As always, stop use of any supplement when unpleasant side effects occur and seek the cousel of a medical professional.

Yamabushitake Mushroom’s Top Benefits

Yamabushitake represents a medicinal mushroom, with a significant benefits aimed towards the neurological function of an individual. The name was derived from the latern term Hericium erinaceus and it also has a couple of recognizable names such as Monkey Head Mushroom, and Lion’s Mane. This amazing mushroom has many neurological benefits. It is rich in minerals like Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Potassium, as well as various polypeptides, polysaccharides and amino acids. Scientists from Japan have discovered that this mushroom stimulates numerous nerve cell growth factors, so there is a debate that this mechanism of action could be applied for the Alzheimer’s disease treatment and for damage of peripheral nerve tissue.

This mushroom inhabits the surface of dead or old broadleaf trees and it is widely consumed in China and Japan. It has many nutrients and while it is widely consumed, there is no harmful side effects reported. The traditional Chinese medicine has enlisted this mushroom as the key medicine. It improves body energy, physical condition, and improves digestion. Based on the latest studies, Yamabushitake has the potential to inhibit cancer cell growth. The benefits of this natural nootropic are aimed at liver, kidneys, hear, stomach and spleen. The supplements of this nootropic are in demand lately for its anti-aging and nootropic effects.

Effects of Yamabushitake


When using this mushroom as nootropic, probably the most important mechanism of actions which supports this benefit is the effect on the nerve growth factor or NFG. NFG is a chemical that is present in the brain that affects the developments and growth of neurons. The most important role of this substance is the survival and differentiation of nerve cells, which is present both in peripheral and central part of nervous system. Studies have stated that lower concentrations of NFG lead to brain cell denial, which could promote dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Yamabushitake works as a stimulator of NFG, which is a unique factor that is present among the medicinal mushrooms.

The benefit of Yamabushitake use could be also explained by the fast absorption, especially the fast crossing of blood-brain barrier. This is quite uncommon among medicinal mushrooms. Because of the small molecules present in Yamabushitake, it can easily cross the blood-brain membrane and affect the brain more efficiently. These chemical substances then interact with brain receptors and help restore the nerve sheaths that are important for the improvement of conductivity signals in nerves. Positive impact of this mushroom enhances the brain electrical conductivity and therefore, increase the efficiency of signal transmission.

Yamabushitake benefits

Improve immunomodulation is one of the benefits this mushroom can give.. Immunomodulation is usually propagated by either suppressed or stimulated inflammation, which classes this nootropic as an adaptogen. This supplement also boosts the immune system and protects the organs from oxidative damage. By boosting the concentrations of both interferons and white blood cells, Yamabushitake supports almost any healing process in the body and enhances the immune system. It is also beneficial for those who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases, because this mushroom enhances the mucus stomach barrier, accelerates the ulcer healing and reduces present inflammation.

As far as it comes to blood system, Yamabushitake assists in blood sugar and cholesterol regulation by lowering these concentrations to a normal level. There are also evidences that this mushroom affects the response to allergies by lowering the allergy sensitivity. It also improves numerous conditions such as multiple sclerosis, neuronal degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, autism and muscular dystrophy. As a nootropic supplement, Yamabushitake promotes brain plasticity and memory retention, including cognitive decline which is a direct benefit of anti-aging and longevity effect. The multiple mechanisms of action could even reverse the neurological damage which occurs due to environmental toxins, substance abuse, stroke or aging.

Recommended dosage for Yamabushitake

Yamabushitake is present for centuries and is used for traditional human treatment, yet there is still no recommended dosage for this nootropic supplement. Relatively few studies on humans are probably the reason for scarce data regarding the dosage, yet certain literature suggests the dosage up to 1 gram, which could be taken three times a day. If you decide to try with this nootropic treatment, it is better to start with lower doses and then advance with higher ones. The starter dosage should be around 50 to 100 mg. After you become familiar with the benefits, effects and side effects, then you could increase the dosage, staying in the predicted limits.

Side effects of Yamabushitake

Since this supplement is still new in modern medicine, there are no reported side effects which could be considered. Yet, this doesn’t mean that side effects do no exist, so it is important to consult a medical professional before you decide to start using this mushroom. Along with the data for side effects, there are also no evidence for Yamabushitake toxicity, interactions and even reactions with other medications.

Vinpocetine Overview – Effectiveness & Benefits

In a previous article about vincamine, we touched the topic of natural nootropics which are derived from plants and are mostly preferred by those who are sceptical when it comes to synthesized products. We have mentioned that a vincamine derivative, called vinpocetine, is more popular than its predecessor, when it comes to effectiveness and benefits. In this article, the reader will get to know whether this herbal supplement is the right choice for him/her, by introducing vinpocetine’s benefits and side effects, as well as the mechanism of its action.

Like vincamine, vinpocetine represents an indole alkaloid which is extracted from Vinca minor, or Periwinkle plant. Even though both of these compounds are found naturally in this plant, vincamine is the one which was used the most as a brain enhancing compound in the past. Lately, studies about vinpocetine have shown that this substance has a more potent activity than vincamine, as well as rare manifestation of side effects, which are more common in vincamine. Because alkaloids are found in lower concentrations in plants, laboratories nowadays synthesize vinpocetine from vincamine and other similar alkaloids, ensuring the purification of this natural derivative and higher quantities available to consumers.


Along with the mentioned effects in various therapies, vinpocetine also deals with neurological impairments by providing increased brain blood flow. Like vincamine, it boosts cognitive functions and has a general effect on brain health when used for a longer time period. It has a neuroprotective activity and treats memory loss, mental decline related to age and reduces mortality in patients who have suffered from ischemic stroke.

How Does Vinpocetine Work?

Vinpocetine is considered to be an anti-inflammatory substance, causing brain blood vessels to relax and dilatate so that additional blood flow may come to the brain. One of the proposed mechanisms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease is the neuroinflammation which causes the neurons to die off. The anti-inflammatory effect of vinpocetine prevents such neuroinflammation and helps neurons to renovate. Vinpocetine prevents the excessive stimulation of neurons, a dangerous effect which could lead to excitotoxicity and premature death of neurons.

Vinpocetine Benefits

Numerous studies have demonstrated that vinpocetine has a vasodilatatory effect on peripheral blood vessels of brain. This vasodilatator increases brain circulation, without a significant change of total blood pressure in other parts of the body. By increasing blood flow to the brain, neurons receive additional oxygen, as well as glucose and other essential nutrients, required for generating energy through brain metabolism. Enhanced brain metabolism affects cognitive processing, including motoric skills, memory and general response. Another great effect of an increased blood flow is the elimination of toxic products from the brain, which supports the preservation of brain cells and their maintenance and growth.

vinpocetine benefits

Vinpocetine, as a natural product, is becoming more and more popular among the senior population, as well as students, who want to enhance their cognitive and studying capabilities. Students usually say that this natural nootropic gets rid of brain fog, helps them with studying specific material. It improves mental stamina, bringing higher mood and motivation necessary for endurance. When it comes to elderly people, vinpocetine lessens the risk related to Alzheimer’s disease including similar neurological forms of the disease. It helps with reduction of brain aging and improves the memory of seniors. Additional non-nootropic benefits are effect on menopausal symptoms, prevention of motion sickness, seizure disorders, and CFS or chronic fatigue syndrome.

Vinpocetine Side Effects

This supplement has few side effects which should be taken in consideration. Most individuals react quite well, without any serious side effects. Mild side effects include headache, nausea, nervousness, gastrointestinal symptoms, sleep problems and dizziness. These side effects are often resolved within couple of days, but if any of the side effects prolong, a consultation with a medical professional is necessary so that the right treatment could be processed.  As with any supplement, stop use until it is possible to consult with the appropriate health professional.

When taking vinpocetine, it is necessary to take drug interactions into consideration because specific combinations of medicine could prove to be dangerous to ones health. Vinpocetine does have some vasodilation properties that could be a problem for people with related conditions.  Combination with analgetics, or pain relievers, should also be avoided, as well as combination with agents that lead to blood thinning. It is not recommended for use by a person who has heart problems, hemophilia or low blood pressure. Pregnant women, or those who are breastfeeding, should avoid the use of vinpocetine, as well as children under the age of 18. Patients have had a recent surgery should avoid the vinpocetine use because it could increase the risk of bleeding and antagonize the effects of blood thickening drugs.


Vinpocetine is considered to be among the most used natural nootropics in the world. Its benefits and possibility of side effects are significant, which makes this supplement acceptable for wider masses. It enhances cognitive effects and increases activities linked to learning, memory, clarity of thought, speed of recall and alertness. For those who would like to start a nootropic treatment, vinpocetine is a good call. Certain people who suffer from blood clotting should avoid the use of this substance, as well as children, pregnant women and those who breasfeed. It should be taken orally, with 5-10 mg three times a day, for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Please consult a medical professional if you decide to use this nootropic, because it is important to take in consideration all the current conditions which could affect your health.

Improve the functioning of your brain with Huperzine A

huperzine aHuperzine A is an alkaloid compound, with basic nitrogen atoms, naturally found in the plant species, fermoss (chemical name: Huperzia). Generally, the Chinese club moss is used to extract and purify huperzine A with the help of laboratory manipulation. This herbal supplement has many nootropic benefits for humans and deals directly with memory and brain’s functioning.

A number of neurological problems can be treated with huperzine A, especially Alzheimer’s disease. It is also used to target problems of memory losses and deficiencies in learning. Its effects can further aid to enhance concentration, gain mental clarity and increase the potential to process information.

Scientifically, huperzine A is known to increase the amount of acetylcholine in brain and is considered an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter between neurons that transmits signals to encode memories. The way huperzine A affects acetylcholine is the same as medications for Alzheimer’s and galantamine, another alkaloid, affect acetylcholine. However, huperzine A is more readily available and cheap comparatively.

Acetlycholinesterase is an enzyme which breaks down acetylcholine to recycle it in a continuous neuron process. Huperzine A and galantamine inhibit the action of acetlycholinesterase and thus, lead to increased levels of acetylcholine in brain. Acetylcholine is associated with helping the brain in adapting, learning and storing new information. With the passage of time, levels of acetylcholine decrease inside the brain. Hence, older people can greatly benefit from this nootropic supplement to reverse the decline.

Huperzine A’s effectiveness was tested with a number of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Researchers found out that after regular usage of the supplement for 30 to 60 days, most patients had improved memory and thinking abilities. Another research study hinted towards the benefits huperzine A can provide to patients suffering from senile dementia. Although, more research and experimentation are required, to authenticate the positive results. Adolescents, especially students, can use the supplement for boosting formation and retention of memory, especially under stressful conditions.

There are no consistent side effects that have been associated with the use of huperzine A, particularly when using the supplement for short term. However, like other supplements, some standard side effects have been reported which include nausea, barfing, loose motions, faded vision, appetite loss, restlessness and twitching. But nothing severe has surfaced till now.

But there are certain conditions, during which the use of Huperzine A is to be avoided. People with heart diseases, like bradycardia, should avoid its usage. In some cases, Huperzine A has resulted in a slower heartbeat. To avoid any major issues, it is advisable to consult a doctor before using huperzine A if you have a heart condition. Patients suffering from epilepsy should also avoid using it. As the supplement imbalances the chemicals in the brain, there is a possibility that Huperzine A worsens epileptic seizures. Although, there isn’t much research out there that explores how huperzine A affects during and after pregnancy, pregnant and feeding women should avoid the supplement.

Based on scientific research and studies, doses have been recommended for individuals. For people with Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular Dementia, it is advised that they orally consume 50 to 200 mcg of the supplement twice in a day. Old people who have senile or pre-senile dementia (declining of thinking skills with age) should take 30 mcg twice per day. Adolescents looking to improve memory, 100 mcg two times in a day is recommended.

There also seems to exist, a relationship between prevention of muscle weakness due to myasthenia gravis, a muscular disorder, and Huperzine A. Such individuals can receive a shot of huperzine A daily if approved by a medical professional.

Lion’s Mane Mushroom – A Supplement for Nerve Growth Factor

Hericium erinaceus, nicknamed, the “lions mane” mushroom is a medicinal mushroom that may have great benefits for the brain. This highly edible mushroom can be grown commercially and is often available commercially in Asian marketplaces in both fresh and dried forms.

Lion’s mane has been used for many centuries by the Chinese due to its unique medical benefits. Mostly the mushroom has been used traditionally to treat digestive related issues. The mushroom has been used in Chinese medicine for problems such as: gastric ulcers, pancreas inflammation and digestive diseases.

As of late, modern science has brought us to understand more about lion’s mane mushroom and its effects on the brain. Research has shown lion’s mane mushroom to possibly improve cognitive function especially, in those who are cognitively impaired. This is believed to be caused be the substances ability to trigger an increase in the nerve growth factor (NGF)

What is Nervneuron structure in the braine Growth Factor?

Nerve growth factor is very important for the survival and growth of certain neurons. Neurons are responsible in the brain for transmitting signals that involve neurotransmitters and receptors. Damage to neurons and neuronal systems can result in permanent brain damage that can result in cognitive impairment and cognitive decline.


Nerve growth factor is released in the brain as a protein. It is related to another group of other brain factors known as neurotrophins. These factors are extremely important in keeping the integrity of important neuronal systems in place. They are also responsible in the growth of neurons and are especially important in the development and stability of a growing and developing brain.

Improving nerve growth factor may work specifically as a nootropic. These nootropic benefits may become especially apparent in those who are already mentally impaired or aged. Damaged memory may be able to be partially fixed and new neurons created to improve future memory functions. NGF may also help to reduce possible damages in the future directly related to brain damaged neurons.

Recent science has shown nerve growth factor to place an important part in neurodegenerative diseases like Dementia and Alzheimer’s. Increasing nerve growth factor and improving its function may greatly enhance the ability of the brain to reduce damages and even partially reverse them. Many cognitive diseases have been linked to malfunction of nerve growth factor.

Lion’s Mane Mushroom and Nerve Growth Factor

Nerve growth factor itself cannot cross the blood brain barrier. There are certain bioactive compounds like ones in the Lion’s Mane Mushroom that can easily cross the blood brain barrier and increase NGF once across.

The active parts of the mushroom fruit are known as Hericenones. These are believed to be to active parts promoting NGF in the actual mushroom itself. The root also known, as mycelium of lion’s mane is also highly potent for promoting NGF, in fact, it is thought to be up to 5x as potent as the fruit. The active component promoting NGF in the mycelium of Lion’s Mane is Erinacine. If one were to find the best lion’s mane extract they would find one from the mycelium of the fungi.

Lion’s Mane Concerns

There are several concerns with Lion’s Mane even though there is a significant amount of research surrounding NGF and the benefits of this mushroom. If it can indeed work to increase NGF this can have great benefits however this area still needs more research and therefore it is unsafe to make assumptions

Lion’s mane should never be considered a primary agent for brain damage and disease. The research is there but it is still an area of interest and study. Also, there may be other issues relating to nerve growth factors and their functions. Increasing them may not always be an answer to the problems.

The last concern with lion’s mane is its purity and quality as a supplement. There are many suppliers and it is indeed best to find one that is reputable and has quality products. The mushroom can also be obtained in its fresh and dried form from the market. These can be consumed in larger amounts to reap the mushrooms benefits. This may be inconvenient for some however the purity can be observed and scaled.


medium;”> – Lion’s Mane Nerve Growth Factor – Nerve Growth Factor Cholinergic Memory Improvement (Any Age)

Why your Body & Brain Needs more Tryptophan

Tryptophan is one of the 22 different naturally occurring basic units of proteins (amino acids) found in the human body. Chemically, it is represented as C11H12N2O2 and is categorized as an ‘essential amino acid’. Essential amino acids are the ones that are needed by the body but are not produced within the body and are to be obtained from food.

Fortunately enough, it is a part of many food items consumed almost daily including, nuts, eggs, some dairy products, soybeans, walnuts and oats. But in comparison with other amino acids, it is the least abundant amino acid in most countries’ diets, especially North America.

Consequently, many people have started using tryptophan as a nootropic supplement for increasing and sustaining levels of tryptophan inside their bodies. The amount of tryptophan in one’s body directly affects a person’s mood and leads to healthy sleep. Serotonin, a neurotransmitter, is derived from tryptophan. Serotonin helps in regulating mood and appetite.

A hormone, melatonin, is responsible for regular and healthy sleep patterns and also needs tryptophan as a precursor. Tryptophan further plays an important role as a precursor for many other chemical substances needed for essential bodily functions like, Niacin – a Vitamin B, and Auxin, a phytohormone.

Tryptophan, Serotonin & Melatonin

Tryptophan is now available in the market as a dietary supplement to regulate levels of tryptophan in blood. The supplement is used by most as an anti-depressant and a sleeping aid. This is directly linked with tryptophan’s role in synthesis of serotonin. A chemically modified form of tryptophan is also being researched into to treat epilepsy.

Resorting to supplements can be very beneficial for the body and prevent many deficiency issues. Tryptophan supplements help to modulate our social actions, control our appetites and reduce anxiety as well as depression in a person. According to researchers, anxiety disorders and depression, in many cases, are caused by insufficient levels of tryptophan in body.

Tryptophan supplements are being used widely as anti-depressants with minimal side effects. The effect of limiting appetite by serotonin can help overweight people fight obesity. Tryptophan supplements are also used to synthesize Niacin, which processes lipids and carbohydrates. Individuals with bad sleeping habits can greatly benefit from these supplements. Serotonin and melatonin, derived from tryptophan, relax the body and regulate sleeping habits.

Tryptophan supplements can also prevent and fight the onslaught of some medical diseases. A research study done in 2010 showed that tryptophan can cause the prevention of steatohepatitis, which is a very common liver disease even among people who consume little or no alcohol. Tryptophan supplements have shown to improve conditions and symptoms in people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. With decreasing levels of tryptophan, the symptoms of the syndrome get even more severe.

The dosage of the supplements depends on the specific purpose tryptophan is being consumed for and should be taken after consulting with a doctor. Commonly, people, especially those looking to fight depression, take between 6 to 12 grams daily, spread over a few administrations. Normally, tryptophan supplements don’t lead to side effects but still, over use is to be avoided.

Tryptophan supplements can really help people who want to improve on their anxieties, depression and sleep patterns.

Vincamine – A Natural Brain Nootropic

Most people believe that nature has offered us only the best, so it is no wonder that a certain part of the population still favors natural products when it comes to nootropics. Some prefer natural substances to the synthesized ones, and that is completely normal because every market has the right treatment and product for each consumer. For those who wish to start a natural nootropic therapy, our recommendation is vincamine, a natural supplement which works as a vasodilator of peripheral blood vessels. Brain blood vessels belong to the peripheral vascular system, so this substance increases the blood flow, as well as oxygen supply, to the brain.

Due to its abilities, vincamine increases clarity of thought, mental energy, heightened alertness and intellectual processing, nothing less efficient than nootropic synthesized substances. It is available under many different generic names on the market, depending on the country and location. Beside its supplemental activity, vincamine is also used as a common component of fragrances, as well as an essential precursor to many pharmaceuticals.

Vincamine is a natural derivative of Vinca minor, also known as the “Periwinkle” plant in English, and it is found in the leaves of this species, compromising about 50 percent of all indole alkaloids of the plant. Less used natural source is the Cataranthus roseus species. The first extraction of this compound was in the 1950s, when a research team discovered that alkaloids from Vinca minor manifest vasoactive properties. Vincamine has a much more potent descendant called Vinpocetine, which represents a purified form of Vincamine, which is highly preferred by consumers.

Vincamine effects

Vincamine has had its therapeutic use for almost thirty years, but a certain mechanism with its effects is still unravelled, with many current pharmacological studies working on this substance. A certain thing is that vincamine acts as an efficient peripheral vasodilatator by relaxing smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, allowing them to widen and let the excess blood into the brain. Dilatated blood vessels bring extra oxygen to brain which enhances brain metabolism and brings additional energy designed for thinking, memory, motorics etc. Brain metabolism is related to glucose uptake which, in the combination with oxygen, speeds up the brain.

vincamine vasodilation

Another great benefit of vincamine is that it is has specific effects oncertain parts of the brain. A part of the brain called locus coeruleus is involved in dealing with physiological reply as well as panic and stress. Neurons in this area of the brain have the ability, as we age, to weaken and lose its effectiveness, leading to poorer planning and thinking. Vincamine enhances the effectiveness of these neurons and improves memory and other cognitive functions, enabling them to overcome the neuronal decline due to age.

Vincamine benefits

Its vasodilatatory mechanism gives the ability of numerous nootropic benefits and potentiates its true cognitive effects. The vasodilatatory mechanism allows an increase of blood flow which enables the brain to function properly. Besides the fact that it could be used as a nootropic remedy, vincamine is also used in various conditions as a pharmaceutical in treating Meniere’s syndrome and vertigo. It helps an individual to overcome the difficulties related to mood changes, sleeping, depression, hypertension, hearing problems and even a decreased eye blood flow.

The ability to enhance cognitive effects has given vincamine a roll as a potential medication for Alzheimer’s disease. Numerous studies have shown that it normalizes brain-wave patterns in seniors who are experiencing memory defects. Another interesting, yet less researched benefit, is that it could be used as a treatment for a type of organic brain syndrome caused by the alcohol intake.

Personal experiences have suggested that vincamine truly increases cognitive efficiency. This supplement, according to consumers, enhances concentration and increases memory which meliorates problem solving and thinking. Overall effects of vincamine are aimed towards mood improvement with a feeling of an enhanced well-being.

Vincamine Dosage

Even though it is a natural product, this herbal supplement is strong and its doses should be controlled when used. Staying within the recommended dosage range is important so it is advised that consumers follow instructions when this substance is prescribed. Recommended dose is 30 mg twice a day. An important notice is that vincamine is still a new nootropic substance, so it is advisable to consult a medical professional before vincamine use. For starters, it is important to begin with a smaller dose and then gradually increase to the recommended level, once an individual is more familiar with the benefits and side effects of vincamine.

Vincamine Side Effects

Vincamine has few side effects of which most of them are minor, like gastrointestinal problems. In some rare occasions, these side effects could be prolonged, so in that case the use of this product should be discontinued. If the proper consultation with a medical professional is carried and the consumer complies with the instructions, the chances of experiencing side effects is minimal.


Vincamine represents a desirable nootropic for those consumers who want a natural product. It increases cognitive abilities and has neuroprotective benefits, by increasing peripheral blood flow to the brain. It helps an individual to motivate himself/herself, removes brain fog and helps a person to get better focus. A purified form of vincamine called vinpocetine is preferred nowadays, because of its more potent benefits, but vincamine is still available for the use and is widely consumed by nootropic users. There are few side effects which should be considered like gastrointestinal symptoms, so a proper consultation with a medical professional should be conducted before vincamine usage.

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibiting Nootropics & Their Benefits

Acetylcholinersterase is an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine within the brain. Acetylcholine is the target neurotransmitter of many nootropic supplements. Having higher than normal levels of acetylcholinesterase may have negative effects on the cholinergic system and cognitive functioning in general.

Acetylcholine & Acetylcholinesterase Relationship

Acetylcholine is prominent not only in cognitive functioning, but also muscle movement, communication and coordination. It helps to trigger the contraction and movement of muscles. The neurotransmitter basically triggers your muscles to move and work in the way your brain wants to. Obviously, this process is very complex as there are different systems involved however this is the basic function of acetylcholine in brain-to-muscle communication.

Like many different enzymes in the body, acetylcholinesterase is necessary for regular human function and homeostasis in the brain. The enzyme terminates the signals from acetylcholine. Without acetylcholinesterase, our bodies would go into convulsions or paralysis because our bodies would not be able to control muscle functions from acetylcholine signals. This is why there is a natural amount of acetylcholinesterase within our brains.

Acetylcholinesterase & Acetylcholine

Types of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors come in two types: reversible and irreversible. Irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot be used safely in mammals. This is because these types terminate acetylcholine in a loop which can cause seizures, convulsions and paralysis. Reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be used safely in humans and are a target for Alzheimer’s treatments.

Reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can also be used as nootropics. Many popular nootropic blends such as Alpha Brain work primarily off the function of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. These blends need acetylcholinesterase inhibitors to synergistically activate the very small amounts of other cholinergic ingredients. This is why these supplements work well.

Many people will also include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors into their nootropic stacks. They are very synergistic and also very powerful. One needs to be careful with how the proportion a stack with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor because only a very small amount is needed to activate the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting properties. This is why this method is only utilized for experienced and advanced nootropic users.

Huperzine A

Huperzine AHuperzine A is a type of Chinese moss that has potent reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibiting properties. It can be obtained as a supplement within the United States and many other countries. Only very small amounts of huperzine A is needed to activate the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting qualities.

Huperzine A is the main acetylcholinesterase inhibiting component in the product Alpha Brain and other nootropic blends. It is very effective and synergistic with cholinergics like citicoline and alpha GPC. Huperzine A also combines well with the racetams and will produce very strong cholinergic effects when stacked together.

Huperzine A may have side effects when used alone however these will most likely manifest when used in a stack. Side effects may include: headache, nausea, gastrointestinal problems and depression amongst others.


Galantamine is another popular reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that may be used as both a general nootropic and Alzheimer’s aid. It may be prescribed by a doctor or obtained over-the-counter as a supplement . Galantamine is a natural alkaloid derived from a number of flowering plants in several species.

As with huperzine A, galantamine is also a very powerful acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It needs a very small amount to produce benefits as a nootropic. Galantamine should be used with caution and especially within a cholinergic stack. It can also produce side effects consistent with cholinergic hyper stimulation.

Acetylcholinesterase & Safety

Using reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors requires knowledge and care. One must use acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the right dosages and amounts. Overall, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be seen as very safe when used in the right dosages and circumstances.

If you are looking to use acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in a nootropic stack with choline and racetams it is important to try both on their own first. This is because adding all three of these at once could increase the risk of side effects.

 It is thought that overloading the cholinergic system in some people can cause many negative side effects. This may not be true in all people however it seems to be a consistent problem nootropic users have. To avoid these problems always start slow and with smaller dosages. This will drastically reduce the risk of side effects.

The CILTEP Stack Review – Does it Really Work?

The CILTEP stack stands for “Chemically Induced Long-Term Potentiation”. This stack has some basic research behind it and a solid principal however it has not been fully evaluated in medical research. That’s why at this point, it is just a theory. Unfortunately, for this reason, we cannot tell you exactly if it will work and only go over the theory to give a better understanding of CILTEP and how it works.

Long Term Potentiation

Long term potentiation (LTP) is a favorite theory explaining learning and memory. For decades, neuroscientists were unable to understand the exact mechanisms of learning and memory. They understood that memory and learning could not be a result of new neurons as new neurons obviously did not increase. This would start a new search for the mechanisms behind learning and memory.

Neuroscientists started to explore the idea of signal strength changes between neurons. This theory is known as synaptic plasticity. LTP is a primary form of synaptic plasticity and works as a dial between neurons to help amplify the signal. This potentiating signal comes in the form of electrical pulses and can help to continuously amplify the signal for hours to months. This is what is known today as the LTP form of synaptic plasticity.

Chemically Induced Long Term Potentiation

Long term potentiation might be modulated and changed through several methods. One way LTP is thought to be increased is through chemical means. This is where the CILTEP theory comes into play. Chemically increasing LTP is thought to be the main nootropic action behind this stack.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) works as a secondary messenger and signal transductor. Increasing cAMP may influence the strength of hormones and certain neurotransmitter signals. This is the main idea behind CILTEP. Increasing cAMP is thought to chemically produce benefits of learning and memory through activating LTP.

We all have levels of cAMP within our body however like many processes it can be metabolized by certain enzymes. The enzyme that breaks down cAMP is known as phosphodiesterase (PDE). PDE is needed in the body to keep certain processes stable.

PDE inhibitors are drugs that inhibit the PDE enzyme to improve cAMP and cGMP levels. These drugs have a variety of different functions on the body depending on their targets and pathways.  There are eleven types of PDE inhibitors in the body and PDE inhibiting drugs can have a variety of different functions. Recently certain types of PDE inhibiting drugs have been of interest to the medical community as possible targets for new mood and cognitive enhancing drugs.

Only certain PDE’s may be suitable for cAMP degradation and therefore possible learning and memory enhancements. PDE4 inhibition has been suggested to be one of the primary targets for new antidepressant, antipsychotic as well as learning and memory enhancement drugs.


Ingredients in CILTEPForskohli cAMP

It is possible to inhibit PDE4 and therefore increase levels of cAMP with a combination of supplements. This is where the common CILTP stack comes into play. Luteolin is a natural PDE4 inhibitor found in several types of foods like peanuts and artichoke. Since luteolin extract is hard to find, most people use artichoke extract as a primary PDE4 inhibitor in the CILTEP stack.

The second aspect of the CILTEP theory is to increase cAMP in conjunction with inhibiting PDE4. Only one such supplement has yet been discovered to directly increase cAMP. The indian plant coleus forskohli, is thought to increase LTP by increasing the levels of cAMP. At this time, forskohli is the only suitable target to increase cAMP in the CILTEP stack. This is why a very basic CILTEP stack is composed usually of forskohli and artichoke extract.

CILTEP Conclusion

We cannot comment on if CITEP works however many people including several doctors have supported the theory. LTP may increase learning and memory so therefore chemically inducing this process may defiantly help to improve cognitive functioning. There is still a lot of mystery in the LTP field and neuroscience so this area is not at all fully understood.

With the data that is available, CILTEP is likely to help improve cognitive functioning. The scope of this improvement may be only of little significance until better and mode advanced PDE inhibitors become available. We suggest too stick to well-known and proven nootropics until more research has been applied to the stack.

Citations – cAMP & LTP – Forskohli LTP