Category: Nootropic Drugs

A Listing of Natural Nootropic Supplements

There are several groups of nootropics, including natural nootropic supplements.  Natural nootropic supplements have been around for a long time, but only recently have they started being treated as nootropics in the sense of providing a boost to cognitive abilities.  The purpose of this list is to call out the natural nootropics in the market.

1. Adaptogen List

Adaptogens are herbs that may help with the body’s resistance to stress, often by helping to reduce cortisol. They may also offer neurotransmitter support and promote enhancements in cognitive functioning and energy levels. Adaptogens are herbs and though many have had research via NIH, most have not been evaluated by the FDA for treating disease. As such some research evidence may be inconclusive.

  • Rhodiola Rosea
  • Bacopa Monnieri
  • Panax Ginsing
  • Siberian Ginsing
  • Ashwagandha
  • Holy Basil

2. Dopaminergics

Dopaminergic nootropics are any substance related to dopamine in order to increase cognitive function. Some dopaminergic drugs are excluded from this list because they are prescription stimulants or dangerous illicit drugs. Even though these stimulant substances can enhance alertness and focus, they are not considered nootropic due to their safety issues.

MAO-B Inhibitors

  • Phenylethylamine (PEA)
  • Hordenine
  • Catechin
  • Epicatechin (Reversible)

Dopamine Precursors

  • L-Theanine
  • Mucuna Pruriens (L-DOPA)
  • Phenylalanine
  • L-Tyrosine

3. Cholinergics

Cholinergics are any type of nootropic involving acetylcholine creation, transmition or the modulation of its receptors.

Choline/Acetylcholine Affecting Supplements

  • Choline Bitatrate
  • Choline Citrate
  • Phosphatidylcholine
  • Alpha GPC (GPC Choline)
  • Citicoline (CDP Choline)
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine
  • Centrophenoxine

AChe Inihibtors

  • Huperzine A
  • Galantamine (Snowdrop)

4. Other Semi-Natural Nootropic Supplements

This list of nootropic encompasses all nootropics which are derived from some natural compound or substance. These also include analouges or substances created from a natural structure. The brackets represent what natural compound the nootropic was derivered from.

  • Centrophenoxine (DMAE)
  • Idebenone (CoQ10)
  • Sulbutiamine (B1)
  • Pyritinol (B6)
  • Agmatine Sulfate (l-arginine)

5. Other Natural Nootropic Supplements

This list of natural nootropic supplements includes a large scope of natural compounds which includes herbal products as well as compounds that are derived from herbal or natural substances. Some of the natural products are also listed in the categories above.

Herbal Nootropics

  • Bacopa Monnieri
  • Rhodiola Rosea
  • Huperzine A
  • Hordenine
  • Vinpocetine
  • Gotu Kola
  • L-Theanine
  • Ginseng
  • Ashwagandha
  • Lion’s Mane Mushroom
  • Ginko Biloba
  • Lemon Balm Extract

Brain Nutrients

  • Omega 3-6-9
  • B-Vitamins
  • Choline
  • DMAE
  • Inositol
  • Creatine
  • Uridine
  • Co Enzyme 10
  • SAM-e
  • L-Carnitine

Choline Capsules as the Ultimate Nootropic Supplement

For those who wish to try the latest wonders from the nootropic world, Choline capsules would be the right choice, which brings a solid foundation to neuroscience and medicine. In general, choline supplements are necessary for your brain to synthesize Acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter to various brain functions, including conscious thought and memory. Choline supplements could be found in regular diet, especially with eggs and meat, yet some people, due to certain medical conditions and drug intake, need an additional quantity of Choline through supplements in order to make their brain, function properly. In this case, Choline pills can bring the additional Choline quantities and enhance the cognitive activity of the brain, ensuring a better maintenance and health of the neurons. When it comes to Choline supplements, there are numerous members of this supplement family, with all the formulations produced equally. Prices may vary with each Choline supplement, but those that are considered the cheapest have usually a less significant impact on the brain functions, probably due to poor absorption. So, what kind of Choline pills should you purchase? Discover more in this article, and start the safest way to a nootropic therapy.

Choline pills

Choline supplements – a general overview

The safetiness of this supplement is well determined by the fact that Choline supplements belong to the B4 group of vitamins, as fully recognized by the FDA in the U.S.A. This essential nutrient appears in abundant forms from Sphingomyelin and Phosphatidylcholine. As a significant precursor for the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine, Choline is also involved with brain functions such as memory, focus, attention control, muscle control, and learning. The beneficial effects of Choline can be seen in the prevention of Steatosis, or the fatty liver disease. That is when Choline removes fats from the liver and prevents the toxic effects of fat from affecting your liver.

The recommended daily dosage for Choline is somewhere between 425 and 550 mg in the diet. However, less than 10% of the population in the world can actually follow this. The supplement is water-soluble like any other presented member of the vitamin B group, so it is important to take it on a daily basis, replenishing the body in order to achieve the brain’s full potential. According to sources, it could be found in sunflower lecithin, soy lecithin, chicken, fish, eggs, and beef liver. Choline could also be found in various chemical forms, such as Choline citrate, Choline bitartarate, Phosphatidylcholine, Choline chloride, Lecithin in combination with Choline, and nowadays, the more popular Alpha GPC and Citicoline choline.

Different Choline supplements have different potencies, levels of cerebroactivity, prices, conversion rates to Acetylcholine, and bioavailabilities. If you compare these supplements by its costs, Lecithin wins, yet less than 10% of Choline is delivered when this supplement is administered, which means that you need to take a much higher dose for best effect. For a higher potency degree and also a higher price, one can have Phosphatidylcholine, and other forms of Choline salts like Citrate, Tartarate and Chloride. On the other hand, the bioavailability of such a group is low and does not improve your brain functions significantly. Probably the best and the most popular Choline supplements are Citicoline and Alpha GPC. Both are more expensive, but are more efficient, showing an increase levels with the brain functions and bringing the ultimate nootropic effect on cognitive functioning. Both are quickly absorbed and converted in the brain, which means that much a lesser dose is needed in order to enjoy the full benefits of these Choline precursors.

Why are Choline pills the best choice for you?

As mentioned in the beginning, Choline can convert into Sphingomyelin and Phosphatidylcholine, alongside Acetylcholine, which are essential for the brain’s functions and maintenance. These substances, which are normally present in low concentrations in the brain cells, act as insulators for the neuron’s electrical circuitry, which leads to a much quicker and efficient neurological communication process. Many brain conditions can lead to the disintegration of this lipid tunica, which can also lead to a poor brain communication between neurons that leads further to cognitive denial. Therefore, the absence of electrical transmission between neurons is unimaginable, so it is important to maintain the levels of these substances.

Choline supplements are also Acetylcholine precursors, potentiating the formation and effect of this powerful neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine maintains mental concentration and thinking, including memory development and consciousness. It helps in the transmission of the nerve signals from the brain, spinal cord, to the muscles, heart, lungs, glands, and the whole gastrointestinal system. As we age, the formation of Acetylcholine becomes lesser, potentially leading to Alzheimer’s disease and other mental conditions linked to memory deficiency. By taking Choline supplements, we could prevent these conditions, ensuring the complete formation of Acetylcholine without the neuronal damage linked to aging.

Recommended dosages for Choline pills

The FDA recommends a certain range of dosage for Choline supplements, and that is between 425 and 550 mg per day. In order to prevent brain deficiency, one must meet the daily dietary needs of an average person. A higher dose can improve the desired cognitive function, where some experts recommend the dosage at 3,000 mg daily from supplements such as Choline chloride and Bitartrate. A higher dose is recommended for these forms because Choline salts are degraded in the gastrointestinal tract by bacteria.

For highly potent Choline supplements, like Alpha GPC and Citicoline, it is important to take a lower dose because these supplements have a good absorption rate. Concerning Alpha GPC, a daily dosage of 500 mg is enough to enjoy its beneficial effects. Please pay attention to your diet, because you may as well take additional Choline through food like meat, fish, and eggs, so calculating your daily intake of Choline through food along with the supplements is essential. Vegetarians who certainly avoid meat should take a higher dose of these supplements in order to replenish the poor choline intake from their diet.

Since these supplements are considered to be the members of the vitamin B group, Choline supplements in such forms are safe and are even naturally found in the body and in our common diet. The risk for any side effect is low when the administration is practiced through the recommended dosage. The supplements are safe and can be tolerated by everyone, especially by young healthy adults. In some rare cases, some side effects are possible and are mostly sweating, appetite loss, and an increase in body temperature. Please, consider a consultation with a medical professional in order to start a much safer nootropic treatment with Choline supplements such are given in this review. It is also extremely important to maintain a healthy way of living while offering your brain an opportunity for better cognitive functions and preventing cognitive denial brought by many medical conditions, such as the Alzheimer’s disease.

Centrophenoxine – effects and side effects

Centrophenoxine represents a nootropic chemical which is sold in different countries under the same name, Lucidril. Its benefits are mostly aimed towards elderly people who use this supplement in order to fight cognitive denial which comes with age. This nootropic protects the brain from many damages caused by various toxins. This article will show the benefits and side effects of this popular nootropic drug. Before you decide to try this substance, it is essential to consult a medical professional, either a physician or pharmacist, so that you would know the proper dose that would suit you and how to react if some side effects would occur.


Benefits and effects of centrophenoxine

The centrophenoxine’s role is to treat certain damages to the brain caused by the use of certain drugs or chemicals, or from a stroke. This neuroprotectant keeps your neurons in proper condition, by preventing possible damage caused by various reasons. One of the studies suggested that centrophenoxine reduces the concentration of waste products, primarily lipofuscin, in the brain. Beside giving benefits to the brain, this substance helps the heart with the same mechanism, especially on the elderly whose predispositions show that cell damages are already significant. Another effect of this chemical is that it lowers the concentration of potassium in the brain, which normally accumulates in our brains as we age. These high concentrations may lead to an impairment to the brain function, representing one of the reasons why some people experience cognitive decline related to aging. Therefore, centrophenoxine is considered as one of the best nootropic drugs supporting longevity.

This nootropic drug also helps in increasing the production of substances which are both essential and helpful to proper brain functions. It benefits the production and maintenance of different proteins and RNA, including the glucose levels which are increased when centrophenoxine is used. In some parts of the world, this substance is presented as a great antioxidant that helps the brain in fighting poisons or toxins which can lead to oxidative stress. It is also used for the general treatment of the Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and other types of cognitive disorders, and is often given in combination with medications that have similar effects. Another possible benefit from this nootropic drug according to studies is its potential as a treatment for ADHD.

How does it work?

There are many mechanisms that stand behind centrophenoxine, yet the main one is still unclear. Most researchers believe that the substance helps the levels of acetylcholine by increasing it. The supplementation of centrophenoxine leads to higher levels of choline and some phospholipids, which helps the general conversion and presence of acetylcholine in brain tissues.

Along with other acetylcholine supplements, like citicoline and alpha GPC, centrophenoxine is considered to be among the best.

The benefits of RNA increase as mentioned before, is another potential theory about the mechanism of this supplement. This surely helps cells to propagate the protein synthesis, replacing the old ones with new ones, which is essential when it comes to age-related problems.

The third potential mechanism regarding centrophenoxine is linked to a theory called “the membrane aging theory”. This theory supports the view, where the cells, as they age, accumulate potassium inside it because its mechanism to lessen potassium levels is not efficient enough to maintain the physiological levels of this mineral. Therefore, centrophenoxine lessens the potassium levels in cells by helping the potassium pumps to function better. Thereby, removing the accumulated toxins especially lipofuscin from the cells.

Side effects of centrophenoxine

This substance is extremely safe, with zero toxicity when used in proper dosage. It is well-tolerated when recommended doses are used, yet when it comes to its side effects, centrophenoxine like any other chemical has its share. If interactions with other drugs are present, these side effects are more likely to happen, so it is important to consult a pharmacist for drug interactions before the use of centrophenoxine. The most common side effects, similar to those of other medications are nausea, dizziness, headache, jaw clenching, irritability, and gastrointestinal problems. If a consumer experiences any of the presented symptoms, it is better to consult a medical professional for advice and further action.

Centrophenoxine as a choline supplement

choline supplement

As mentioned above, this nootropic drug benefits the acetylcholine levels and therefore it is one of the best choline supplements. The market offers many of these supplements, so it is up to the individual to choose in order to start the right therapy. If you solely look at the centrophenoxine benefits when compared to other choline sources such as CDP choline or alpha GPC, then this substance has the advantage over others. So, it is important to recognize which of the benefits are essential to your body in order to support the right personal decision. If you are concerned with your age and potential cognitive denial, then centrophenoxine is the best choice for you because it supplements choline and can help the anti-age struggle. When compared to other anti-aging nootropics, centrophenoxine is the best for starters, so this is something which you should consider. The choice is yours, so choose wisely and don’t forget to consult your medical professional for additional information about this nootropic drug.

Synaptol – a homeopathic nootropic supplement

Homeopathic supplements have recently gained popularity for being extremely safe and adaptable to anyone who wishes to use it. This is fairly supported by the fact that these supplements are available without prescription, enlisting them as OTC (over-the-counter) preparations. An example of a homeopathic preparation is Synaptol, which is a nootropic supplement for the treatment of ADHD. It is presented as a natural homeopathic preparation for individuals who have difficulties in focusing, paying attention to performed tasks, listening to certain instructions, and controlling impulses. It is a good alternative to ADHD medicines such as Adderall, and it is completely derived from herbs. Synaptol stimulates the internal healing process and optimizes the brain performance, which makes this supplement quite popular in the nootropic world as well. Numerous reviews speak about the benefits of Synaptol, like being able to improve the ability to focus, memory capacity, energy increase, and much more.


The manufacturer of this supplement is a company called HelloLife and is formulated in a liquid state, which means that its effects are immediately enjoyed because its absorption process is fast. Although some individuals may not experience the benefits immediately, but only after a certain time of intake. There have been many concerns for children who suffer from ADHD and the right medications to prescribed for them. Some of these medications are later shown to be potentially dangerous to children. Synaptol on the other hand, works both for children and adults, bringing positive effects with maximum safety. FDA, has therefore, according to the numerous positive reviews, presented Synaptol as a target for their thorough experiments. This supplement is available, while further tests are currently done.

Effects of Synaptol

Synaptol represents a homeopathic formulation for the treatment of ADHD. It works as a stimulator of the natural healing power of the body. It consists of different ingredients such as Adrenalinum, Aconitum Ferox, Avena Sativa and Apis Mellica, which have been reported to improve concentration. Additional ingredients for this homeopathic supplement include Argentum Nitricum, Aesculus Hippocastanum, Cochlearia Armoracia, Baptisia Tinctoria, Scleranthus, Phosphorus, Scutellaria Lateriflora, and Viola Odorata. The secret ingredients are mostly herbal and all solely have homeopathic effects recognized by homeopathic medicine. The exact mechanism of Synaptol’s effects is still unclear, yet these natural extracts generally boost the attention and other cognitive functions.

Synaptol benefits

This herbal, homeopathic alternative to Adderall and Ritalin, is good for those who suffer from ADHD and would still want a natural supplement for their condition. Unlike Adderall and Ritalin, Synaptol is not a prescription drug and could be easily found as an OTC preparation. The studies and cases have shown that Synaptol has a beneficial effect on cognitive functions in both children and adults, without additional stimulation or arousal overdrive.

Even though the supplement is not technically considered as a nootropic, it still offers similar effects which could benefit those who wish to start the treatment. In short, Synaptol can also improve concentration, the memory recall speed, and overall focus, which are important for studying and work. People who have used Synaptol have reported that they have become less forgetful and make fewer mistakes at school or work.

Other users report additional benefits, such as a better sleep, making an individual wake up well rested and ready for a new day. This supplement also benefits the ability to relax easier and to fall asleep without any difficulties. Another benefit of Synaptol is that it affects the general mood positively. The overall positive increase in mood is reported without the mood swings and the feelings of depression and anxiety. Consumers have said that they feel more organized and confident, with being able to focus on work more properly, improving their efficiency over time.

Recommended dosage for Synaptol

The recommended dosage for this supplement depends on the actual weight and age of a person, and both adults and children could use it. For small children who weigh anywhere from 30 to 50 pounds (14kg to 23kg), they should take a 0.5ml two times per day. For children who weigh more than that range, a full 1ml should be taken, twice a day. The morning and evening doses should balance the intake of this homeopathic preparation.

The supplement can be taken solely or with water, depending on your choice. The effects may be felt a couple of hours after administration, and the full benefits can be experienced after 3 to 6 months of intake. Keep the bottle in a dry and cool location, avoiding the contact with electrical devices, appliances, and metal.

Synaptol side effects and interactions

A number of side effects have been reported, which has brought these concerns to the FDA and subjected it for further investigation. Yet, it is still unknown if these side effects have come from the Synaptol use or something else in addition. The reported side effects for this homeopathic preparation are nose bleeds, sleeping problems, loss of appetite, and headaches. These side effects are considered mild and have differed from person to person.

As far as it comes to interactions, according to the ingredients of this homeopathic supplement, people who use certain drugs should avoid its use, in combination, or avoid it completely. So it is important to consult a medical professional for your current therapy before you decide to start this nootropic treatment. The drugs which interact with Synaptol are Warfarin, topical Corticosteroids, Digoxin and antidiabetic drugs such as Glyburide, Glimepiride, Metformin, Insulin, Tolbutamid, Pioglitazone. If you are diabetic or experience any other metabolic syndrome, please contact your medical professional immediately for further advice regarding the intake and use of the Synapol preparation.

A review of Pemoline: effects, side effects, dosage and results

Pemoline is a nootropic substance with a tradition of about a hundred years. It was first synthesized in 1913 and used as a prescription medicine under numerous market names. Its use was focused on the treatment of children with ADHD and its mechanism aimed towards the stimulation of the central nervous system and increasing attention in combination with a decrease in restlessness. Even though it has been discovered a hundred years ago, its past usage was not based on the definite mechanism of action (which was still unknown and unexplained), a couple of decades after its discovery.

Nowadays, experts believe that Pemoline is not safe for children, so it was abandoned as treatment for ADHD as well as narcolepsy. Current classification puts this substance in the psychotropic group and is administered intravenously in the U.S.A.

The effects of Pemoline

Pemoline’s mechanism of action is still not fully explained, even though it has been used for a hundred years already in medicine. But, the effects of Pemoline are certain. It works as a powerful brain stimulant. When compared to other nervous stimulants, Pemoline has a different pharmacological activity, which vastly differs from other compounds. Having small molecules enables Pemoline to easily cross the blood brain barrier and act inside the central nervous system quickly and efficiently. It also acts as a surrogate for the neurotransmitter dopamine, without affecting the intracellular concentrations of dopamine at all. This also explains the reason why it has minimal effects on significant dopamine stimulation. Therefore, it doesn’t bear typical side effects such as loss of appetite, hypertension, dry mouth, cardiac stress, dilated pupils, and smooth muscle constriction.

An important effect of Pemoline, which a vast majority of scientists support, is its nootropic effect. Scientists believe that Pemoline works as a nootropic agent or as a supplement, acting as a catalyst conductor of brain synapses placed in the memory section. This way, Pemoline affects the production and formation of RNA, which raises memory efficiency needed for positive cognitive function.

Pemoline benefits

Pemoline benefitsThe previous benefits of this substance could be found in the treatment of ADHD/ADD in children, but it is now considered unsafe for the youngest group of our population. The effect which stood behind this treatment was the expanded attention span of children when they were using their substance. This improved the cognitive function of children and helped them to stay focused, overcoming the negative sides of the syndrome. Their overall emotional stability was also positively affected, as well as their calmness and stressfulness. From time to time, Pemoline was also used in the treatment of narcolepsy, with the same benefits present with the children who suffer from ADHD/ADD.

One of the most significant benefits of this substance is its nootropic activity, which is increasingly popularizing this chemical substance nowadays. The proposed mechanism which classifies this substance as a nootropic substance is its effect on the development of the synapses in the central nervous system. It also increases the memory, especially the memory that is short termed. The formation of RNA in the brain is increased, which significantly impacts the speed of the memory recall. These nootropic benefits vary in the population, so not all of the people could experience the same effects when administered with the same dosage of Pemoline.

Recommended dosage of Pemoline

This substance is extremely potent, so this factor should certainly be taken into consideration. Therefore, it is recommended to consult a medical professional before you decide to start a nootropic treatment using this chemical substance. The typical recommended dosage given in the studies and reviews is a single pill of about 37.5mg of Pemoline. The studies have shown that the best part of the day for you to take the pill and experience its top benefits is in the morning. Your medical professional should also be able to suggest a safe range for intake, which most would recommend at 50mg to 75mg. Everything which crosses the 110mg barrier is forbidden and not recommended under any circumstances.

Before you decide to start the treatment with this nootropic substance, along with the dosage and consultation with a medical professional, one must also consider all the side effects. The advice is to start with lower doses for a certain time and then gradually increasing it, while respecting the limit suggested by the sources.

Pemoline side effects

The side effects for this substance are numerous, but are minor. However, some of it are serious and should be taken into consideration when using this chemical substance. The most common side effects are insomnia and irritability. Users can also experience side effects such as nausea, headaches, hallucinations, increased heart rate, liver irritation, tics, and also the exacerbation of Tourette’s syndrome.

The toxicology studies have found out that this chemical affects liver negatively, so people who suffer from serious liver and kidney diseases, epilepsy, Tourette’s syndrome, and seizures should not use this compound. The combination with alcohol should be avoided, as well as the use in people who have a history of alcohol or drug abuse, both of which can affect the liver stance.

Alpha Brain: A Nootropic Product Review

Even though nootropic drugs have already gone beyond the radar, it’s fair to assume that the wide range of supplements and drugs today may have turned off some people. When bombarded with a plethora of all-too-similar products, reactions from some consumers is to simply give up and not even bother dwelling further. As a result, they’re likely to miss out on how such supplements can boost their brain function.

The new product, called Alpha Brain, is said to mix everything conveniently in a single supplement. Basically, you won’t have to take in or experiment different nootropic drugs every day to achieve any brain-enhancing effects each day.

A Close Look at Alpha Brain

The widely acclaimed product came from a common perception of nootropics as an ideal supplement for anyone who wants to be smart in a direct and hassle-free manner. Onnit, Alpha Brain’s manufacturer, was determined to come up with a capsule with harmonious balance of nootropic chemicals. The product, Alpha Brain, is said to offer an ideal solution for people in need of pushing their mental power and intelligence beyond their natural limitations. All it takes is to simply pop a single Alpha Brain pill once a day. Based from numerous satisfied buyers, the effects are said to be “awesome.”

Effects of the Alpha Brain

Effects of the Alpha Brain

Due to its sophisticated combination of nootropic chemicals, Alpha Brain is ideal for enhancing a person’s energy level, mental capabilities, mood, and concentration. Such effects have been marked more frequently than its rival products, making Alpha Brain consistent with higher beneficial nootropics in every pill. Essentially, people can attain a lot more mental enhancing properties when they buy the product.

Individuals Benefiting from Alpha Brain

It’s fair enough to assume that anyone who prefers enhanced mental capabilities can benefit from the Alpha Brain. It’s no surprise that students dealing with a lot of school work are among the candidates. If you feel like boosting your concentration to higher levels is better compared to studying for a long period of time, then Alpha Brain is a product you can count on.

In addition, the product is recommended for anyone new to nootropic supplements. Veteran users are more at ease in fiddling with a number of supplements to create their own “nootropic snack” for their mental requirements. But on the flip side, Alpha Brain makes it easier for first timers since everything needed is housed in a pill.

Buying Alpha Brain

If you’re still doubtful to the value of Alpha Brain, then it’s best to take your time to look through endorsements made about the product. One of the many high profile celebrities to have endorsed the Alpha Brain is Joe Rogan, who came away impressed with the supplement’s efficacy.

Aside from Rogan, there millions of users who have gone online to write positive reviews about Alpha Brain. In a similar fashion, the Alpha Brain is indeed a reputable product backed by many who believe in its brain and mood enhancing properties.