Category: Reviews

Sulbutiamine – The Smart Vitamin B1

Sulbutiamine is a synthetic molecule that consists of two Thiamine molecules that are tightly held by a sulfur group. Developed in Japan, sulbutiamine serves as a more effective version of vitamin B1.  Sulbutiamine is in a class of supplements known as nootropics.

Compared with vitamin B1, this powerful supplement is highly effective in crossing the blood brain barrier.  Once it crosses the blood brain barrier the body metabolizes it as thiamine (vitamin B1).  This may explain why, it has stronger effects than vitamin B1. Sulbutiamine is known to alleviate fatigue; particularly that linked with infectious diseases. Although this substance has its own unique properties, you can use it alone or stack it with other nootropics.

How it Works

In terms of the method of action, sulbutiamine shares several similarities with thiamine. But, sulbutiamine has much more powerful effects. Thiamine is considered an essential element in the body, particularly for cognitive function as it plays an important role in the acetylcholine’s biosynthesis. It is believed that sulbutiamine positively affects the dopamine, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, thereby resulting in nootropic benefits.

Thiamine’s absorption rate is quite slower than sulbutiamine. Since it’s poorly absorbed through the intestines, thiamine absorption is usually decreased by problems like folic deficiency. On the contrary, sulbutiamine is more lipophilic and tends to easily dissolve in fats. As a result, this substance has a faster absorption rate, which eventually enhances blood brain barrier efficiency. In addition, it helps facilitate glutamatergic transmissions. Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter in the central nervous system for excitement. Because of this, it plays a critical role in learning and memory function.


No doubt, sulbutiamine is a popular over-the-counter nootropic. Some studies have linked this substance with memory enhancing effects. Its positive effects on memory could be related to sulbutiamine’s effects on glutamate and acetylcholine activity. Its effects on D1 dopamine receptors may also contribute toward cognitive benefits.

In some cases, this substance may have mild stimulant effects. Many athletes have used it as a performance enhancer. Sulbutiamine doesn’t seem to influence other catecholamines, which is why; it doesn’t tend to trigger side effects related to amphetamine-stimulant.  But it does provide an increase in focus and energy levels that many find to be of assistance.

According to many studies, this supplement also has certain anti-depressant effects. This is usually associated with sulbutiamine’s effects on the D1 receptors as well as Dopamine. In fact, this substance can serve as an extremely powerful anti-depressant for a certain amount of time. These effects tend to recede after repeated use; therefore, you shouldn’t use sulbutiamine as your primary anti-depressant.

It is the only compound used to treat asthenia that is known to selectively target the areas that are involved in the condition, and is also used in the treatment of chronic fatigue.  Asthenia is a condition of chronic fatigue that is cerebral rather than neuromuscular in origin.

According to one study, sulbutiamine is linked with positive effects on the psychogenic erectile dysfunction. According to the International Index of Erectile Function, sulbutiamine is believed to increase performance from around 17.5 to 24.8 on average.

Safety & Side Effects

Sulbutiamine is typically well tolerated and doesn’t have too many side effects.  But, there are still some points that should be considered before using this supplement. Irritability and anxiety are two common side effects. However, these effects are a consequence of consuming higher than normal doses of this substance. If you experience anxiety or irritability from normal sulbutiamine use, you should discontinue its use immediately. Other side effects associated with sulbutiamine are depression, nausea, skin rash and headaches.

When talking about tolerance, sulbutiamine is known to cause tolerance build-up quite quickly. This is typically associated with the mood boosting or energizing effects of this substance. However, some users find that its nootropic effects weaken overtime. This is why, sulbutiamine works well as a stacked or “as needed” nootropic. Sulbutiamine doesn’t appear to be addictive because it’s not considered a psychoactive substance.


This supplement is quite good to stack with other racetams. It doesn’t appear to contribute towards potentiating the effects of racetams but it’s good at accenting a stack nicely by bringing in its own exceptional features. In fact, many advanced nootropic users, use this supplement in a stack that could be used occasionally with other nootropics.

Just like other nootropics, sulbutiamine has it’s own unique properties and can fairly accent other nootropics. In fact, pyritinol and sulbutiamine make a good, effective and unusual synergistic combination. Always try this supplement before starting to use it in a stack for assessing your individual tolerance and sensitivity to sulbutiamine.

An In-Depth Review of Citicoline

Citicoline is considered a pro-supplement for both choline and uridine. It confers both choline and uridine into your body after its oral ingestion. This supplement first dissociates into choline and cytidine, and later, cytidine converts into uridine.

Citicoline is known to prevent or treat memory impairments linked with aging because the two molecules conferred by this supplement are neuroprotective and are believed to improve learning. While citicoline seems to have more effective results than phosphatidylcholine because it enhances PC synthesis in your brain, citicoline’s potency can be compared to that of Alpha-GPC.

The recommended dosage of citicoline is 500-2,000 mg, which should be divided in two doses of 250-1,000 mg. The two doses are typically separated by around 12 hours, but a single daily dose may also be used. It’s important to note that a single dose of around 4,000 mg is no different than a dose of 2,000 mg in terms of its effects on the blood. So, you don’t need to take a high dose of 4000 mg to get powerful results.

There are certain properties of this supplement like attention or bioenergetics improvement, which appear to have stronger responses to lower dosages. Other properties such as appetite work differently and therefore, the right dosage is based more on the goal you want to achieve.

Being an intermediate between choline and phosphatidylcholine, citicoline gets converted into choline in your intestines and then takes the form of citicoline again as it makes its way through the blood-brain barrier. Phosphatidylcholine is a rate-limiting biological catalyst that is used to perform this transformation.

Choline is considered the brain’s first choice for Acetylcholine synthesis. In fact, it is involved in the breakdown of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine. Acetylcholine is an essential neurotransmitter and its deficiency is believed to be associated with cognitive complications.

Citicoline also enhances Acetylcholine levels by freeing up choline for synthesis. It is also useful in restoring depleted phospholipid levels. By preserving phospholipids, this supplement has positive neuroprotective effects as well. This also helps in protecting the brain from oxidative damages.

Citicoline and Dopamine

Citicoline aims at encouraging dopamine release by means of the tyrosine hydroxylase activity. In fact, this supplement acts as a dopamine agonist by preventing dopamine re-uptake. Research has shown that when combined with L-DOPA, citicoline has positive effects in people experiencing Parkinson’s.

Citicoline and Hormones

This supplement affects the hormone levels in your body as well. It raises Adrenocorticotropic hormone and at the same time, makes sure that the stress hormones don’t increase. These effects tend to increase HPA axis hormones without stimulating stress hormones. HPA axis hormones such as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone carry several health benefits.

Citicoline and Neurology

According to a study, a dose of 250-500 mg of citicoline can enhance attention. It is also believed that this supplement has minor appetite reducing effects in the body at high doses like 2,000 mg daily. However, the reason behind this effect is yet to be known.

Choline generally has pain-killing effects as it enters the brain. This is because activated choline receptors promote the release of opioid painkillers. Citicoline injections appear to have painkilling effects because of its choline content. However, there isn’t any orally supplemented evidence at present. Citicoline is also known to have anti-addictive effects if taken at 500 mg two times every day. However, the supplement doesn’t seem to be excessively potent.

Side Effects

Citicoline is fairly tolerated in most people. Having low levels of toxicity in the body, citicoline doesn’t appear to have any connection with liver toxicity. Citicoline may lead to gastrointestinal issues in some cases. This can be associated with diarrhea and stomach problems. However, such side effects rarely occur.

Citicoline may also result in mild side effects when used in combination with racetams. Similarly, when used in combination with other supplements, citicoline may cause headaches.

A Review of Pyritinol

Pyritinol (pyridoxine disulfide) represents a semi-natural nootropic substance which is synthesized from vitamin B6, or pyridoxine. First synthesis was performed in the 1960’s and since then, it has been prescribed for various neurological conditions worldwide. In many other countries, including the United States, pyritinol is available as an OTC medicine (over-the-counter), which can be bought without a prescription, functioning as a common cognitive and memory enhancer.

For the last fifty years, numerous studies have shown pyritinol’s effectiveness on the nervous system, representing it as successful and safe general nootropic applied to huge numbers of people. Over the course of many years, media has overinflated the negative aspects of safety of pyritinol. Although this substance has a couple of safety concerns, like any other medical substance, most of these side effects are not unusual and dangerous. It’s semi-natural origin derived from pyridoxine helps in limiting the safety concerns and to ensure any issues are minimal, increasing the effectiveness/risk ratio of this medicine. Even though it has been found half a century ago, the nootropic mechanisms are still completely unknown, with several possible methods which support the benefits of this substance.


Probably the best and thoroughly explained mechanism, or method of action, is high affinity choline uptake which is similar to pramiracetam and sunifiram. A study on the animals has shown that rat brains experienced an increase in high affinity choline uptake, when researchers administered regular doses of pyritinol. This study included both young and old rat brains, where in both cases pyritinol showed a significant increase. The possible pyritinol choline uptake mechanism hasn’t been studied on human brains.

Another interesting and well supported study on rats has stated that pyritinol administration for the period of 2-3 weeks ameliorated acetylcholine levels. A similar, yet different study, has shown that pyritinol metabolites affected the release of acetylcholine, by indirectly acting on this neurotransmitter levels.


The benefits of this nootropic supplement are numerous and over the course of many years, it has been proven on both young and old people, enhancing their cognitive capabilities. Probably the most significant effect could be seen in elderly people, because of the declination in cholinergic activity which develops with age, resulting in different health conditions, such is Alzheimer’s disease. It’s nootropic activity, which declared the substance as OTC medicine, is the most evident which makes it desirable among younger people, especially students.  One small study did find an improvement in reaction time, but not memory.

Pyritinol’s nootropic effects include increased learning, improved memory and problem-solving skills, enhanced sensory perception and a decrease in tiredness. The benefits improve with the higher doses, yet its safety concerns suggest that higher doses shouldn’t be used in this indication. The higher the dosage, the higher the chances that negative side effects could occur, resulting in its toxicity, so it is advised to be moderate when using pyritinol.

It is approved for the symptomatic treatment of chronically impaired brain function in dementia syndromes and for supportive treatment of sequelae of craniocerebral trauma in various European countries, including Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, and Greece.  In France it is also approved for rheumatoid arthritis as a disease modifying drug, on the basis of the results of clinical trials.  In most other countries it is either sold as an over the counter (OTC) drug or has distribution legally limited.


As mentioned, media has belied the story about pyritinol, representing it as unsafe drug. The fact that is is an over-the-counter medicine, which proves the safety, overthrows the false information. This medicine has an astonishing safety record, administered for over a couple of decades by thousands and thousands of people. Even with the presented evidence, pyritinol still has some safety issues, similar to other medicine widely used by the population all over the world. A conversation with a qualified medical professional, such is doctor or pharmacist, is essential before the use of this medicine.

The concerning serious side effects which have been present in couple of cases were connected to immune system response. This case of pancreatitis was present at regular doses which means that immune system has overreacted, bringing the organism to a rare and uncommon inflamation. The other rare case included hepatotoxicity, related to cholestasis, believed to be a side effect of the mentioned nootropic. This case is also related to genetic predisposition present at a smaller percentage of population. With the upcoming methods of genetical biomedicine, these rare cases are going to be discovered early, resulting in the decrease of these rare, yet strange cases.

Common side effects, on the other hand, are not dangerous and life threatening. These include headache, most likely linked to its cholinergic mechanism, then gastrointestinal discomfort, insomnia, nausea. Even rare side effect is a skin problem, such as dermatitis.

It is usually combined with other nootropics, to decrease the side effects and increase the effect available thanks to different nootropic mechanisms of medicine. It works synergistically when applied with similar cholinergic drugs, like choline and acetylcholine supplements and racetams. Another synergetic proposal is the combinasion of pyritinol with sulbutiamine, but there isn’t a direct evidence of their conjoined potential. The substance is not recommended to pregnant women or those who are breasfeeding their newborns. It is important to be introduced to safety warnings, including the consultation with pharmacist or a doctor, before its use.

Alpha GPC Citicoline Comparision

Both citicoline and alpha GPC are effective in improving memory and accelerating learning. But, you may find it difficult to determine which one would work best for you. By comparing the benefits and method of action of each supplement, you can make a well-informed decision.

Method of Action

Although both the nootropics achieve the same goal of ensuring acetylcholine abundance in the body, alpha GPC and citicoline significantly differ in terms of their respective methods of action. While citicoline functions as an intermediate to acetylcholine, alpha GPC works as a synthetic precursor to acetylcholine.

By freeing up choline for synthesis, citicoline aims to increase acetylcholine levels within the body. It further helps in restoring phospholipid levels that eventually become depleted. It should be noted that depleted phospholipid levels tend to result in cognitive decline. On the contrary, alpha GPC works by mimicking choline effects for producing acetylcholine. In fact, alpha GPC is deemed more effective than choline at acetylcholine conversion because of its exceptional chemical properties


The two nootropics have positive effects on the brain’s function and overall mental health. By enhancing acetylcholine levels, these nootropics address cholinergic deficiency. In fact, both alpha GPC and citicoline benefit individuals with choline or acetylcholine deficiencies.

The unique properties of citicoline cause it to affect the functioning of the dopamine transporter (DAT) while influencing dopamine release. Unlike alpha GPC, citicoline may positively affect dopaminergic neurons, which eventually leads to improvements in attention and focus.

Alpha GPC is known to improve cognitive function in individuals with damaged cholinergic systems like brain trauma sufferers or Alzheimer’s patients. Moreover, this nootropic triggers the release of essential human growth releasing hormones that further leads to natural HGH release. Natural human growth hormone plays an important role in repairing body tissue while stimulating the immune system.

It is important to note that both the nootropics have “anti-aging” effects on the nervous system. However, alpha GPC is better suited as a post workout choline replenishment supplement since it tends to activate the parasympathetic (rest and digest) nervous system, while citicoline serves as a stimulatory agent, making it a suitable option for enhanced focus and drive.


The use of both alpha GPC and citicoline is considered highly safe, particularly when used in their recommended amounts. Neither alpha GPC nor citicoline carry risk of causing addiction or toxic reactions. Having limited interactions, citicoline serves as a neuroprotective agent as well.

It is important to note that the two nootropics have very few, mild side effects that are usually experienced by sensitive individuals. However, a majority of these side effects can be avoided by reducing the dosage. Headaches and upset stomach are common side effects associated with the use of both nootropics.

It has been observed that cholinergic hyperactivity can lead to mood problems and abnormally high acetylcholine levels are related to depression. This makes depression a possible outcome of the over-dosage of both alpha GPC and citicoline. Alpha GPC may cause heartburn, rash, confusion or insomnia in sensitive individuals whereas citicoline may lead to nausea.


Both alpha GPC and citicoline are known to enhance the advantages of other nootropics, particularly the racetams. Citicoline stacks quite well with many cholinergics, particularly with racetam nootropics. This happens because citicoline tends to facilitate enhanced acetylcholine demand, which results in fewer side effects as compared to choline supplementation. Furthermore, citicoline stacks well with ACh inhibitors, particularly in individuals experiencing cholinergic deficiency. However, in other cases, this stack may lead to increased side effects.

The synergetic effects of alpha GPC are best observed when stacked with a racetam. For potentiating the effects, alpha GPC is typically stacked with cholinergic racetams. Racetams are known to increase the acetylcholine demand while alpha GPC facilitates the replenishment of these amounts without causing choline overload in the brain. It is typically believed that excessive choline can cause headaches and therefore, stacking with alpha GPC may reduce the possibility of experiencing such side effects. However, it is important to note that it is still a disputable claim.


While alpha GPC and citicoline greatly differ in terms of the method of action, the two share several similar nootropic effects. Both the nootropics enhance brain function by improving acetylcholine levels.  Neuroprotection has been observed in both as well. Alpha GPC and citicoline are equally effective in preventing aging. In fact, the two have very few, mild side effects.

At the end of the day, the decision of determining the better option between the two nootropics boils down to personal choice. Because each individual responds differently to these acetylcholine sources, the best strategy would be testing each of them out. Consider starting with any one of the two for several weeks before switching. Lastly, it is important to make sure that you have the most beneficial combination in your stack.

Picamilon – A Combination of Vitamin B3 & GABA

Picamilon represents a synthetic combination of the GABA neurotransmitter and vitamin B3, also known as niacin. This nootropic substance has the capability of providing vasodilatatory and anxiolytic effects which can offer many benefits to consumers. This substance was first developed in the former U.S.S.R. and actually represents an enhanced form of the neurotransmitter GABA and is able to cross the blood brain barrier, unlike GABA itself.

Due to its metabolism in the brain, this substance breaks into its two original parts, GABA and niacin. Vitamin B3 or niacin has a vasodilatatory effect on brain blood vessels and enhances blood flow, while GABA works as an inhibitory neurotransmitter which provides calming anxiolytic effects.

Similar to other nootropics which affect the neurotransmitter concentrations and brain receptors activity, prolonged use of picamilon could lead to tolerance which requires additional doses, yet this nootropic is best cycled. All of the studies which have been done in the past were conducted in U.S.S.R. and in scientific terms is available in abstract forms. This article provides facts given by these abstracts.

Mechanism of action

As said, picamilon represents a combination of vitamin B3 and GABA. This combination breaks after it passes blood brain membrane. Lower concentrations of GABA could lead to increased stress, so additional GABA concentrations delivered by this nootropic many lead to an anxiolytic effect. GABA reduces neuronal excitability and brings an individual into sedated state which may help a person to relax.
On the other hand, niacin has potent vasodilatatory properties. Numerous studies have shown that niacin increases blood flow to brain more efficiently. The additional blood brings more nutrients into the brain, as well as oxygen, which benefits the brain metabolism and cognitive enhancing effects of this substance.

Recommended dosage for picamilon

The recommended dosage for picamilon could be found in he Russian encyclopedia of drugs called RLSNET. This encyclopedia recommends a dosage of 20-50 mg taken 2 to 3 times each day for cerebrovascular conditions, and for calmative purposes this dosage could go from 200 to 300 mg for a 4 to 6 week period. One of the performed studies suggests that a dosage of 60-120 per day benefits elderly when it comes to modest depression. After dosing, it takes about an hour for a complete effect of this nootropic.

Picamilon potential interactions

The mechanism of action of this nootropic is linked to the GABA neurotransmitter, so using this substance with other medicine which interacts with this neurotransmitter should be avoided. This means that picamilon should be avoided in combination with antiepileptic drugs or benzodiazepines, which have an effect on GABA. As far as it comes to nootropic drugs which have the same mechanism, combination with phenibut should be avoided. Anxiolytic substances, such as bacopa, magnesium and aniracetam, should be avoided.
Another mechanism of picamilon is a vasodilatatory effect, so combination with drugs that enhance vasodilatation should be totally avoided. These include natural nootropics called vinpocetine and vincamine, as well as nitroglycerine and similar nitrate medicine, erectile dysfunction medicine such is Viagra, and antihypertensive medicine, since the combination of those could potentially lead to hypotension, shock and death.

GABA and picamilon

Benefits of picamilon

1. Brain blood flow enhancement

This substance is listed as an essential medication for treating ischemia, cerebrovascular conditions and migraine in Russia. It has a vasodilatatory activity which is probably caused by the niacin part of the molecule. In a study which consisted of 28 patients has shown that this chemical is effective when it comes to chronic cerebral insufficiency.

2. Non-muscular relaxant

Picamilon has shown to be causing brain relaxation without an effect on muscle tissue, which especially benefits sportsmen. The sedative part of myorelaxation is totally avoided when this substance is used, unlike for brain activity which is normalized and relaxed. Another comment from the studies linked to sportsmen is that picamilon supports people who work under the conditions of great stress.

3. Learning and cognitive effect

When compared to piracetam in some studies, picamilon has shown a better effect on learning. After amnesia related to electroshock, rodents in the study were able to improve their water maze navigation (a test designed for the ability of learning).

4. Normalizing / Anti-stress effect

Picamilon has helped the respondents in the studies for chronic stress, bringing the brain to a normalized state. The stress mostly increases lipid peroxidation in brain which leads to a much lower concentration of endogenous antioxidants in body. Lower concentration of antioxidants allows oxidants to disrupt the normal metabolism and cause oxidative stress which could lead to many conditions and diseases. One area of research has noted that the effect of picamilon was significant enough to lower the stress levels of lipid peroxidation and cause the identical level with control group, which was not under a stress.

How safe is it?

In therapeutic doses, which are given above, picamilon hasn’t shown serious or even mild side effects. Numerous studies have shown that human patiens, who have used picamilon in recommended doses, haven’t suffered from side effects. Yet, then Russian encyclopedia for drugs has listed headache, lightheadedness, nausea, agitation and anxiety (paradoxically) as plausible side effects. Patients who suffer from kidney disease should avoid picamilon use and consult a medical professional before any usage of this nootropic.

A Comparison between Piracetam & Aniracetam

You may be deciding between piracetam and aniracetam. Perhaps you cannot afford to buy both or are simply just looking for a general comparison between the two supplements. Both piracetam and aniracetam have a lot of similarities and differences to evaluate.


In terms of popularity, piracetam is much more popular than aniracetam as a nootropic. This does not mean that piracetam is better than aniracetam but simply means that piracetam gets more publicity and widespread use. Aniracetam is the next most popular racetam next to piracetam. Regardless of this, piracetam is still over three times as popular as piracetam.

Piracetam also has a big advantage over aniracetam in the popularity department. It has been around longer and has many more studies than aniracetam. Since it was the first racetam developed it is often mentioned in a lot more in literature. Also, piracetam has been approved for a lot more medical uses in countries that have registered it as a drug which gives it even further publicity


Aniracetam is stronger in potency than piracetam. The average dosage is slightly smaller than with piracetam. Most people will dose 750-1500mg in comparison to 800-3000mg with piracetam. Piracetam is water soluble which means it is best taken on an empty stomach whereas aniracetam is fat soluble and best taken with food.

The bioavailability and half-lives of both substances are very different. Piracetam has a very good oral bioavailability of near 100% whereas aniracetam only has an oral bioavailability of 8.5%-11.5%. This is due to the fact that aniracetam is subject to a first pass metabolism in the liver. Piracetam has a half-life of 4-5 hours in comparison to aniracetam which has a short half-life of 1.5-2.5 hours.


Aniracetam is stronger than piracetam regardless of the much lower bioavailability and half-life. Both of these nootropic racetams act similarly on cholinergic pathways by acting as positive allostertic modulators of the acetylcholine receptors. The cholinergic effects may seem quite similar with possible increases in learning, memory and sensory perception. Piracetam is slightly stronger than aniracetam as a cholinergic nootropic.

Piracetam has little if any effects on glutamatergic systems. Aniracetam on the other hand acts as a modulator of the AMPA glutamate receptor. The ampakine-like activity of aniracetam may explain its slightly stronger benefits despite its lower half life and bioavailability.

Aniracetam may also affect certain serotonin receptors in conjunction with acetylcholine and glutamate receptors. This might explain possible anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) effects observed in animal models. This may be an added benefit of aniracetam that some people may experience. The benefit of this is that aniracetam may promote these effects without any sedation or inhibition of the mind.


Both piracetam and aniracetam are very safe supplements. They are some of the oldest racetams with several decades of published use. Neither have very high potential of overdose or addiction. One must still be careful when using these two as both can produce side effects especially evident in higher dosages.

The side effects of piracetam and aniracetam are likely to be similar. Headaches, nausea, depression and irritability may all be common. Both may also stimulate brain fog possibly due to the cholinergic hyperactivity caused by an off balance in catecholamine homeostasis. This might be able to be solved with certain tweaking and neurotransmitter support in sensitive individuals.


Both aniracetam and piracetam are different. When comparing which is a better nootropic, aniracetam will likely win due to its wider scope of benefits. Aniracetam is becoming increasingly more popular however it is likely to remain less popular than piracetam in the future.

Aniracetam and piracetam are great racetams to stack together. Both of these nootropics are very affordable and are well tolerated in most users. Stacking them together will allow for a wider range of effects overlapping into the cholinergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic systems. Adding in a choline stack with these two racetams may help to potentiate the effects even further.

Alpha GPC Review

If you are considering a “choline” supplement, you may have considered alpha GPC as an option. Alpha GPC is a great supplement and perhaps the most suitable for you. Its cost is considerably more than choline however unlike choline, it actually is considered to have nootropic qualities when taken alone. Regardless, it is most commonly stacked with cholinergic compounds such as racetams for best results.

What Makes Alpha GPC Special?

Comparing alpha GPC to choline is like comparing apples to oranges. Both can help increase the amount of choline and acetylcholine however each works and metabolizes differently. There are many ways to increase the amount of acetylcholine. Some supplements like choline bitatrate act as an external choline source whereas alpha GPC is a phospholipid that converts into choline within the brain. Alpha GPC is more effective than choline at getting into certain parts of the brain more efficiently with fewer side effects.

How alpha gpc converts into choline in the brain makes it the most valuable. It is considered a choline prodrug that is hands down the best acetylcholine supplement based on weight. If you are considering the best choline supplement and are less concerned about price, this supplement may be for you.

Benefits of Stacking Alpha GPC

Most of the benefits of alpha GPC will be apparent when the supplement is stacked with cholinergic supplements and drugs. Its effects when supplemented alone may not be fully transparent however one might experience a slight increase in their cognitive functions.

Stacking alpha GPC with racetams is the most common and the combination may have synergistic effects. Some people suggest that they can feel a difference between choline and alpha GPC when stacking with racetams however there have been any documented studies to verify this. It is possible that alpha gpc may have efficiency over choline on how it produces acetylcholine in certain parts of the brain.

Studies have shown alpha GPC to be effective when combined with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. There are several types of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors one may decide to stack however huperzine A and galantamine are two of the most popular.

Is Alpha GPC the Best Choline?

Many people claim alpha gpc to be the best choline source. This is not far off from the truth and cdp choline (citicoline) is probably the most comparable to it. As far as choline potency, gpc wins over cdp. On the downside, it is more expensive than cdp choline so this is something to take into consideration. In regard to nootropic effects, both work very well at increasing choline and how it is used in the brain. Both are recommended choline sources.

One thing to consider when buying alpha gpc, is how it is purified. Some nootropic suppliers will sell the cheaper version which in comprised of mostly filler. These versions are much less in potency because the substance has only been purified once. Retailers buy the cheaper version for higher profits may or may not offer it for the same price and the pure version of gpc. At elite nootropics, we only sell the high purified version.


Alpha gpc has been considered to be very safe and low in side effects however there are some things to remember. Having too much acetylcholine can affect some people and therefore increasing these levels with supplements can cause problems. Most of these problems do not affect the central nervous system and exist mostly as side effects on the mood.

It is thought that side effects like: depression, irritability and aggressiveness may be a result of neurotransmitter imbalances caused by an acetylcholine spike. There is not exact science but some believe having too much choline supplementation will cause these problems. Alpha gpc seems to cause less side effects than supplements like choline bitatrate however one must be aware of this when taking these types of supplements