Citicoline is considered a pro-supplement for both choline and uridine. It confers both choline and uridine into your body after its oral ingestion. This supplement first dissociates into choline and cytidine, and later, cytidine converts into uridine.

Citicoline is known to prevent or treat memory impairments linked with aging because the two molecules conferred by this supplement are neuroprotective and are believed to improve learning. While citicoline seems to have more effective results than phosphatidylcholine because it enhances PC synthesis in your brain, citicoline’s potency can be compared to that of Alpha-GPC.

The recommended dosage of citicoline is 500-2,000 mg, which should be divided in two doses of 250-1,000 mg. The two doses are typically separated by around 12 hours, but a single daily dose may also be used. It’s important to note that a single dose of around 4,000 mg is no different than a dose of 2,000 mg in terms of its effects on the blood. So, you don’t need to take a high dose of 4000 mg to get powerful results.

There are certain properties of this supplement like attention or bioenergetics improvement, which appear to have stronger responses to lower dosages. Other properties such as appetite work differently and therefore, the right dosage is based more on the goal you want to achieve.

Being an intermediate between choline and phosphatidylcholine, citicoline gets converted into choline in your intestines and then takes the form of citicoline again as it makes its way through the blood-brain barrier. Phosphatidylcholine is a rate-limiting biological catalyst that is used to perform this transformation.

Choline is considered the brain’s first choice for Acetylcholine synthesis. In fact, it is involved in the breakdown of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine. Acetylcholine is an essential neurotransmitter and its deficiency is believed to be associated with cognitive complications.

Citicoline also enhances Acetylcholine levels by freeing up choline for synthesis. It is also useful in restoring depleted phospholipid levels. By preserving phospholipids, this supplement has positive neuroprotective effects as well. This also helps in protecting the brain from oxidative damages.

Citicoline and Dopamine

Citicoline aims at encouraging dopamine release by means of the tyrosine hydroxylase activity. In fact, this supplement acts as a dopamine agonist by preventing dopamine re-uptake. Research has shown that when combined with L-DOPA, citicoline has positive effects in people experiencing Parkinson’s.

Citicoline and Hormones

This supplement affects the hormone levels in your body as well. It raises Adrenocorticotropic hormone and at the same time, makes sure that the stress hormones don’t increase. These effects tend to increase HPA axis hormones without stimulating stress hormones. HPA axis hormones such as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone carry several health benefits.

Citicoline and Neurology

According to a study, a dose of 250-500 mg of citicoline can enhance attention. It is also believed that this supplement has minor appetite reducing effects in the body at high doses like 2,000 mg daily. However, the reason behind this effect is yet to be known.

Choline generally has pain-killing effects as it enters the brain. This is because activated choline receptors promote the release of opioid painkillers. Citicoline injections appear to have painkilling effects because of its choline content. However, there isn’t any orally supplemented evidence at present. Citicoline is also known to have anti-addictive effects if taken at 500 mg two times every day. However, the supplement doesn’t seem to be excessively potent.

Side Effects

Citicoline is fairly tolerated in most people. Having low levels of toxicity in the body, citicoline doesn’t appear to have any connection with liver toxicity. Citicoline may lead to gastrointestinal issues in some cases. This can be associated with diarrhea and stomach problems. However, such side effects rarely occur.

Citicoline may also result in mild side effects when used in combination with racetams. Similarly, when used in combination with other supplements, citicoline may cause headaches.